Management development has passed through a century of course, in this long process, the management practitioners and management thinkers gave many methods and management thought. We should note is that, like Robbins says that, each theory is about the same object is, only is the difference between the different background and interest. An image of the story was the MangRenMoXiang classic story, they are depends on the understanding of the elephant they are in point of view, is the relative partial. If any of them side of the issue separate sports to practice, I believe that the management practice must be a failure.
Although management theory there are so many different partition, but basically all along the lines of: the pursuit of efficiency, the efficiency of the priority institutionalized management; Pursue humane care, and dedicated to the proposition of humanistic humanized management. Of the two different tendency that the content of the management is unusually rich. Now we are from game theory and practice game two Angle to the humanized management and institutionalized management have a comprehensive understanding of the.
A, theoretical game.
(a) institutionalized management.
Institutionalized management theory thoughts can be traced back to the beginning of Adam Smith. Adam Smith in “the wealth of nations, organizations and social will claim from the division of labor for economic interest, the work breakdown for the narrow, repetitive tasks. He think that people can’t follow one’s inclinations, can only do some specificity work to achieve the purpose of efficient, and that people are chasing money. Adam Smith’s theory are fundamentally pursuing efficiency first, not too much attention of people’s material outside of the other needs.
The 19 th century at the beginning of 20 centuries, Frederick Taylor with scientific attitude research in the factory before the habits and experience to solve by the operating methods, the workload, pay pay, business management, and has formed a complete set of ideas, and rise to a complete system of philosophy, this is what we are known as the “scientific management”. Since Henry law Joel and webber inherited the basic idea of Taylor. Law’s concerns about pointed to the all the management activities, will be all of the management activities of system theory comb, and through the scientific management and reasonable professional specialization, realize the maximization of the organization efficiency. Webber’s “bureaucracy” describes a kind of ideal type organization, its characteristic according to the principle of division of labor, with a clearly defined level, the detailed rules and regulations, and the personal relationship. This ideal tissue types can be used in all kinds of management work, is one of the best form of organization.
The premise of institutionalized management theory, is actually the staff as a carrier of the behavior, don’t consider the diversity of the employees need, regard employees as machines operate “tool”. Management of the basic task is to set up a system or the system environment for employees to work in it, is focusing on institutional constraints rather than human caring.
(2) the humanized management.
The humanized management theory can be traced back to the first Robert Owen. Early management thinker Robert Owen think that changing the lives of the workers environment can improve labor productivity. He against child labor, the improved worker welfare, pay attention to the community construction, and strengthening the worker training and so on, can be thought of as the humanized management thoughts origin. Robert Owen’s management idea and the management of the implementation of reform and later the utopian socialism experiment, in the capitalist society at that time background ultimately fails, but started the human-oriented management thinking, glittering for the behavior science theory sow seeds. In addition, the same period of the 20 th century appeared Hugo mans, frost, Mr Bloomberg, Marie, and Chester · at Barnard, these people from different Angle, that the people are the most important assets, and should be the appropriate management of people. They thought the management practice foundation provides, the practice of selection procedures, including employees incentive plans, employees of employees work team and organization and external environment relationship management technology, etc.
Since then, Taylor scientific management system period because of the theory and practice which is based on the rationalist tradition and the “economic man” hypothesis, the management mode of person’s factor not give enough attention, workers became “will work machine”. Technology rule and machine oppression, cause the workers’ strong dissatisfaction, industrial relations increasingly nervous. Taylor is Mired in a period of the theory of questioning trap.
Elton Mayo in Westinghouse electric company’s repeated test research, finally found the source: the society needs. The paper puts forward the “social” hypothesis. The follow-up of scholars inheriting and expand the theory, and in the relevant incentive and leadership behavior in go further.
Maslow’s hierarchy theory of needs is people-oriented values as the core, to the person’s motivation for value theory analysis. He will be human needs are divided into: physical needs, safety requirements, and the love of the ownership needs, self-esteem, and self realization needs to five parts. In addition, McGregor X-Y theory of human nature and the layer upon layer reveals and the display. The 1920 s and 60 s, behavioral science theory experiences interpersonal relationship theory, theory of the behavior of the individual, the organization behavior theories formed a complete system of humanistic management theory, a more profound on human nature more complete understanding. This one phase we can see that the emphasis of the management theory is to pay attention to the human nature, emphasize the humanistic care organization and how to meet the needs of the diversity of the employees. Since world war ii, the rapid development of modern science and technology, new technology revolution to the wave of promoting the management technology, the rational return. Harold’s hole in 1961 and in 1980, two time put forward the concept of forest management theory, schools view is different, of different research point. But no matter what school still is basically in this paper describes how to solve the problem of management efficiency and effectiveness, but we can see a trend of people know about humanity is deeply.
Second, the game.
(a) the pros and cons of the institutionalized management.
The study of the theory has told us to economic institutionalized management organization save the production cost and transaction cost, so as to effectively create wealth. The enterprise from the pursuit of the basic produce the aim is to increase social efficiency, more effectively to the creation of wealth. Although with management responsibility of change and management environment of change, manage the pursuit of the basic goal of efficiency and effect and no change.
In the practice of the institutionalized management in management advantages are obvious, it is helpful for enterprise management, base, well-defined right, make the job more smooth. It can better regulate the working process of the enterprise, let staff to be able to find in it to his position. It will be excellent personnel wisdom into company staff keep many specific management behavior, form an unified, the system of behavior system, can play a whole advantage of the enterprise. At the same time it for company employees for the ability to play a fair platform, not because the rules of the different, the assessment standards of different, to the evaluation of staff to produce large error. In addition, he is also advantageous in organization will excellent wisdom into enterprise many voluntary abide by its concrete operation management behavior, form an unified, the system of behavior system, benefit to the enterprise staff training, be helpful for enterprise employees self development. Enterprise employees with unified standard for reference, can understand his work to standard, able to be work have a definite measure of his own, and found that gap, to training and the power of the development of standards.
But, the system is the rules, in business, everything all want to act in accordance with the rules, handle affairs according to the system. However institutionalized management is “cruel”, some too “dull”. A lot of enterprise in the execution of the institutionalized management time process, benefit from the institutionalized management also found that the institutional management will bring some negative effects. Institutionalized management will enterprise management had died, too “, thus make atmosphere depressing, employees to drive and energy shortage, influence enterprise in the employee’s work efficiency. Institutionalized management is very easy to create the enterprise supervision too strict, cause the boredom of employees emotions and feelings produce. At the same time, also easy to cause the employee has not belonging, and the enterprise distance and bigger, employee and enterprise only exist between interest. Can not stand it enterprise system management staff and easy to find new job, make enterprise brain drain.
(2) the pros and cons of the humanized management.
The humanized management have been more and more praise highly. As a learning organization, competitive advantage theory, cultural papers “target =” _blank “> enterprise culture theory and the schools of further research and development of in full consideration under the premise of human nature design system has become a necessity.
The humanized management emphasis is to understand and meet the need of the people, and to pay attention to the work of human relation communication and interaction, focus on the enterprise personnel’s collective consciousness cultivation and the enterprise personnel’s work efficiency and the enterprise internal and external environment for the people and the incentive contingent leadership. That is, to the nature of man, from the characteristics and the reality, in making enterprise development planning, system design incentive punishment, give prominence to the management of the subject position.
This is easy to make employees respected, obtain self-fulfillment meet. At the same time, the humanized management and safeguard employees involved in the important issues of the enterprise’s decision, in the team and leadership team goals for consultation and individual goals and implement objective management. The implementation, maintain and develop employees interests foremost position, perfect the income distribution system, establish and improve the medical security system, ensure the vital interests of employees. The humanized management also pay attention to meet the spiritual and cultural needs of the worker, through the sets up the model, the skills competition and various cultural entertainment activities, enhancing employees’ pride and belonging. In addition, humanization management in human resources management also play a tremendous role, mainly in trust, communication, motivation, good listener, constantly improve their own quality, etc.
Some people think that the humanized management because of the weakness of human exposed in management, so as to make management confusion that is kept in random order. Here we need to distinguish between a concept, this is humanization management is not equal to the humanized management. Humanization management is based on strict management of company system as the basis, is scientific and has the principle. And the humanized management is not as a management system basis, only by managers of personal preferences, no scientific basis, very subjective a management state. So we can see, humanization management is not completely put aside system and speak only of the world. It is a kind of system standard, based on the consideration of more human nature, that prompted one can work better. Practice has proved, humanization management has become a management tendency, and occupy the main position.
Thus, we can draw the conclusion: the humanized management and institutionalized management and is not between two extremes, but on different levels of two kinds of management. In comparison, the humanization management is on the basis of institutionalized management, more emphasis on human outstanding. And the argument in the humanized management and institutionalized management theory game is not contradictory, management practitioners and management pioneers, in order to make a kind of theory more sophisticated or tend to be more perfect, they must for his theory to the hypothesis, that in institutionalized management theory, fully highlight institutional roles, and the role of intentionally weaken the human nature; And in the humanized management theory, is outstanding the role of human nature, and deliberately desalination system function. Thus, humanization management is institutionalized management development of reflect, also be institutionalized management mature performance. The humanized management has become the most social management and future development of the main mode, it also service in the management of the ultimate goal: improving the efficiency of the enterprise, and for the continual create more wealth, let the human life more free, more beautiful.