China’s reform and opening-up over the past 20 years, the gap between rich and poor in “giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness” have been gradually widened under the influence of the trend. Narrow the gap between rich and poor is an important foundation construction of harmonious society of connotation. To solve the problem of the gap between rich and poor, and the key is system, only from the market conduct, taxation, employment and social security to reasonable system arrangement, fundamentally narrowing gap between poverty, promote the construction of a harmonious society.
The gap between rich and poor of moderate economic development of the world are in the process of an inevitable phenomenon . In the western developed countries, the richest 20% of the population is usually the most impoverished wealth of 20% of the people from 6 to 7 times, and in the U.S. the proportion even up to 10 times. China’s reform, opening up more than 30 years, has been maintained a high pace of economic development, the market economy has been improved gradually, and constantly improve the level of people’s life. At the same time, the gap between rich and poor in “giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness” have been gradually widened under the influence of trend, the differentiation degree has far more than those of developed countries. If will define the salary, salary income for the income, real compensation and benefits, capital income and given of words, so wealthy class and poor strata income gap will be more big . Scholars think, the current is in the period of social transformation in China, as well as the modern development key period, but also social problems are the most unstable period, social . If the system is proper, can promote the coordinate development of the economic society, smooth realization industrialization and modernization; Conversely, can appear in the process of modernization “pull beautification” phenomenon: between economic and social development, social strata gap, social contradictions intensifies, social economic development going around, appear even social unrest and retreat. In this period, properly solve the polarization between the rich and the problems of the system, and put forward for the party construction of harmonious society is of great significance.
1 the gap between rich and poor in the analysis of the current situation.
1.1 related data analysis.
The definition of the current situation of the gap between rich and poor analysis, mainly from the current scholars compare identity gini coefficient analysis and statistics data analysis reflected in.
1.1.1 from the national bureau of statistics show that China overall residents gini coefficient in 1994 peak 0. 389, and then have a certain level to decrease (1996 0.375 in 1997, 0. 379, 1998 0. 386), to 2006 years and back up to 0.397. And social scientists surveys show more big gap: in 1980, the mainland of China’s gini coefficient is 0.3, to 1988 urban and rural total gini coefficient only 0.382, but in 1994 to 0. 434 after rising year by year, 2005 in and 0.456 in 2006, 0.457, 2007, 0.458, 0.1 percentage points per year increase .
1.1.2 town residents internal income gap. Statistics show that in 2006, 20% of urban residents in the highest income group (per capita disposable income 25 410. 8 yuan) is 20% minimum income group (per capita disposable income 4 567. 1 yuan) of 5.6 times; Rural residents in the highest income group is 20% (8 per capita net income of 474. 8 yuan) is 20% minimum income group (1 per capita net income of $182.5) 7.2 times.
1.1.3 rural internal gap at the same time, the gap widening year by year. 1978 rural residents income gini coefficient is 0.212 4199 4 years came to 0. 32199 and and up to 0. 336 1. From the actual income look, in 2007 as an example, and rural per capita net income of real growth 9. 5%, for 1985 years the highest growth a year; And the income of urban and rural residents than but expanded to 3. 33:1, the absolute gap between them and 646 yuan, is the largest gap since the reform and opening up of a year.
Based on social development 1.2 the analysis of the actual contradictions.
1.2.1 government wealth growth too fast, the government has too much social wealth in 2007, the world bank released 2 a powerful report. The first of the state of the economy on Russia report points out that Russia is in the interests of the poor economic growth of economic growth. The second report from China, in 2001 and 2005, with the economy growing at 10% a year, but 1.3 billion people in the poorest 10% of the population real income has fallen by 4%. China’s 30 years of rapid development, accumulated great wealth. From 1995 to 2007, remove the inflation component, government revenue increased 5.7 times and urban per capita disposable income only increased 1.4 times per capita net income of farmers to increase 1. 2 times. In China, more than 76% of the assets is the government have, folk only less than 25% of assets. The central party school, sponsored by the “learning times have papers disclosure, in 2004 China bus consumption 08.5 billion yuan 4, restaining 2 00 billion yuan, sightseeing abroad 3 00 billion yuan, each year China” three consumption “nearly 9 00 billion yuan. Therefore, in the government has social wealth, excessive government spending from taxpayer effective supervision, the taxpayer in fact on your hard-earned money for a huge bureaucracy group.
1.2.2 social wealth through more concentrated power rent-seeking China’s reform foundation of the national economy, deputy director of institute of Europe, and the writing of the national income distribution status and grey income “study this paper points out that: according to the engel coefficient and some other consumption characteristics for preliminary calculation, high income levels, there are lots of hidden income, at present the town lowest and highest 10% of family income per capita income gap between about 31 times, not the national bureau of statistics show that 9 times. Total urban and rural areas, the highest in the country and minimum income 10% per capita income gap between family about 55 times, and not by the national bureau of statistics statistical data calculated 21 times. Because of inadequate data, difficult to recount the gini coefficient, but it would significantly higher than the world bank calculation of 0. 45 level. High income residents in China town, there are a lot of gray income, this is causing the income gap widening of the main factors. Including financial corruption, land profit erosion, enterprise for travel and entertainment expenses of bribery, monopoly industries such as gray income, amount already close to 3 trillion yuan, 4.4 trillion yuan of missing most of the income. It shows that China’s national income distribution system in huge loopholes and serious defects in the system.
2 narrow the gap between rich and poor is an important basis for the construction of a harmonious society.
From the above data that the gap between rich and poor fully reflect social injustice, the gap between rich and poor continues to expand, social disharmonious factors are also growing. The party’s 16 big CCCP congress construction of socialism harmonious society is to achieve all of the people from each according to his ability, each is in his proper place and harmonizing of target, it must, in accordance with the principles of justice, a rational distribution system, to narrow the gap between rich and poor growing. This is the comprehensive construction well-off society’s inevitably demand, is also the constructing the harmonious society and promoting the coordinated development of social each subsystem is an important issue.
2.1 narrow the gap between rich and poor is to realize the economic harmonious request inevitably.
The party led the people in reform, opening up and modernization of the fundamental purpose, is to get through to develop the productive forces, and make great efforts to meet the people’s growing material and cultural needs and realize economy sustained, rapid and healthy development of . In this sense, the whole economic harmony is the basis of social harmony. No economic harmonious no economic efficiency, the whole society operation will lose necessary material support.
In the economic system internal, production, exchange, distribution, and consumption each link must organic link, smooth circulation, otherwise, reproduction process is not normal, the economy as a whole will be negative growth. Foreign the empirical research shows that, in the economic income gap of the country’s economic growth has been slow. China’s own development experience have largely shows the trend. First of all, the polarization between the rich and the demand is bound to lead to a weak, consumption, easy to form economy shrank. Economic theory suggests that the established under the condition of wealth, the more equal distribution, disposable income for the greater part of consumption. If the income gap is too big, wealth in a few hands, consumer demand will not be possible to keep rising . Second, the polarization between the rich and the impact of the economic structure optimization. From the change of industrial structure and development point of view, the income gap is too big, too much focus on wealth in the hands of a few people will appear industry development around a small fraction of the automatic demand tendency. The limited resources and capital will be main flow to the luxury of the production department and related services department, and formed the deformity expansion. While the poor because of its low income and demand, used to meet their life demand in light industry and light industry department department for development of the basic development needs such as industrial department inevitable based mechanical and electrical relative atrophy, the industrial structure will not optimized.
2.2 narrow the gap between rich and poor is to realize the harmonious class important symbol.
With the deepening of China’s reform and opening up policy, laid-off workers also will increase, the urban poor have become a new poverty is an important part of the class. From the interest relations speak, the rich and the two classes often exist between the contradictions and conflicts. Especially in market economy, the more PinZhe in poorer and the rich richer Matthew effect, under the action of the cost and price reform and not by all the members of the society to jointly undertake, also not according to various interest groups in the reform of the amount in benefit to bear. In real life, often is in competitive disadvantage in position, and bear ability, particularly vulnerable poor strata taking more of the cost of reform and price, for the reform and development of the rise of rich people for the time and space . The harmonious society is required between the various social strata should have benign, fair and reasonable interactive structure. Exactly speaking, a real sense of harmonious society should has the following signs: (1) the interaction between the social class open peace and so on to enter; (2) each class should be have differences and proper return; (3) between the various social strata should maintain a mutually beneficial relationship. If can through relevant system design and policy arrangement, construction on achieving reciprocity and mutual benefit justice rules, in improving high income levels of interest, and make poor strata situation also will get continuous improvement, diminishing the polarization huge gap, then, will be able to realize the social strata of unity between the and effective cooperation, avoid class conflict between unhappy, or even the resistance of the malignant interaction, build a real sense of harmonious society [8-9].
2.3 narrow the gap between rich and poor is to realize the effective measures of social stability.
Inequality in the distribution of wealth is always social instability of potential source. Deprived of theory indicates that interests are relatively deprived groups may deprive their groups have hatred or resentment psychology. When vulnerable groups their full boil down to the benefit of the group circumstances deprived, society lurking danger of the conflict, even they also can spread to the hatred. Like in the economist’s “barrel effect”, the flow of the spill on the shortest barrel depends on a board, social risks in the most easy to bear ability of the lowest social groups broke out on that make threaten social stability, the influence of the social development of a great hidden dangers. In the near future, the reform of the cost and benefits of not equal, many of the distribution field unfair and illegal phenomenon has caused many conflicts, such as rural of illegal charge against, in the field of city of labor dispute, social crime . If the government in a period of the interests of the reform is not equal to distribution, once rich strata and the gap between the damaged class become is not acceptable, the regime the moral base will be changed. Historical experience shows us, no regime in serious economic inequality can maintain political stability.
And only realize social justice, narrow the gap between rich and poor, all aspects of social relations, be harmonious coordination, the mood of the people will be happy, enthusiasm, initiative and creativity can be full of the play, the whole society is the harmonious and stable. Therefore, the fourth plenum of the 16 th “decision” explicitly pointed out, “pay attention to social justice, and rationally adjust the distribution of the national income, adopt effective measures to solve the region between members of the society and part of the gap of income”, try hard to “promote social fairness and justice”.
3 narrow the gap between rich and poor countermeasures and Suggestions.
Fundamentally, the expansion of the polarization between the rich and the is not market reform and expanding the opening to the inevitable result of the world there are plenty of market economy of the country’s wealth and income distribution is relatively equal. A key factor is that the government’s system arrangement. In fact, the economic growth itself and could not be solve inequality.
Instead, not equal system enlargement interfere with market reform and future economic growth for the long term. Only when the government to eliminate the polarization between the rich and the will and ability is very big, the reform and open policy the benefits and costs of distribution can be is fair. In fact, the polarization between the rich and the related to distribution and redistribution system in the field of fairness, justice, which reflects the Chinese society in the fast change of the social optimization and social problems coexist, social progress and the social cost of coexist situation . Smooth advance social optimization and social transformation, to research and solve the problem of social injustice, reduce social cost and the solution of the problem, mainly from the following aspects to take active measures:
3.1 construction perfect law system, standardize the market behavior.
Careful analysis to the public the polarization between the rich and the state of mind can be found, most public discontent or hatred and not rich and poor statified phenomenon, more is rich in the ways and means of questioning. “The rich money, clean?” became a popular question. And a “problem” plute of exposure, it proved the public in the heart of doubt. Power rent-seeking nepotism, capitalism, corruption and illegal to become rich, caused the people strong dissatisfaction, and make the existing gap between rich and poor in the psychological further amplified, produce “and evil effect” and FaBuZeZhong psychology. This is mainly because the market mechanism has not yet been fully built, the corresponding laws and regulations is not sound and not perfect, and make part of the people can hack the illegal business and speculation, power market, lead to economic order caused confusion. Therefore, to crack down on to various kinds of illegal way to acquire the behavior of the illegal income, up of various illegal sources of income channel; To improve and standardize production factors market, make according to the capital and technology of the allocation of factor of behavior incline to rationalize; To perfect the human markets, including a market and consolidated urban and rural labor market; We must strengthen the legislation and the economic rules and regulations, avoid legal loophole, and to strictly enforce the law, increase to disrupt the market operation order, an illegal business, tax evasion, fake, financial crimes enforced; Using the market is the invisible hand, also want to use political law “visible hand”, both, in order to regulate the market operation order, narrow the gap between rich and poor.
3.2 reasonable use of tax system, enhance the adjustment dynamics.
The tax system is the national executive income redistribution and the pillar of the foundation. The government effective tax behavior, on the one hand, to the actual implementation of the class can be certain restriction, on the other hand, but for all the welfare policy or other income redistribution policy formulation and implementation of provide the solid material base. However, our country adopts the high income tax by tax, to turn to for low income tax payment method to adjust action was not fully plays out, the tax system of taxation ability and efficiency relatively low. Although our country executes a new personal income tax law, but in the collection process there are still a lot of problems, mainly is the personal income tax 2 000 yuan cutoff point is too low, the lack of the basic ability to monitor income tax system and the means of, the punishment is to evade or defeat of the high income group is a widespread phenomenon, lead to high earners and lack of effective regulation. In view of this situation, should now to take the following measures:
The first thing is to construction income monitoring system. Construction income monitoring system, on the one hand, can use tax information, on the other hand, can use the social security system in the relevant information, such as social average wages, individual account and as a whole account sum amount. Through these information to work out a sheer specified number of income. At the same time, it should use the price index, wage index, real cost index and monitoring of the income of the residents relative change state. Scientific and comprehensive construction of income to the important role of the monitoring system, but also because we defined for accurate governing object provided the basis of material.
Second is to reform the personal income tax system, increasing the cutoff point. At present our country the execution of the individual income tax 2 000 yuan cutoff point is low, the appropriate to the threshold of high individual income tax. At the same time, at present the goal should be perfect and improve the collection and management measures, including strengthening cash management, promote residents credit card or cheque settlement system; As quickly as possible between different bank of computer network; In a real personal deposit, based on personal financial assets, real estate and cars, and other important commodities are a real name registration system; Set up and perfect the customs, industry and commerce, service management, entry and exit management, culture management, public security organs, procuratorial organs and foreign institutions and departments to the tax authorities provide relevant personnel economic exchanges and income of information system and so on, with the system safeguard, comprehensive and classification of the combination of individual income tax reform to smoothly development .
Once again, is to reform the tax collection and administration system, reasonable add new taxes. In our current tax collection and administration measures by the tax department is directly to the taxpayer to collect, this publican and lack of supervision between the taxpayer, easy to cause the stealing, fled, tax loophole phenomenon.
Should reform of the tax system, construction and implementation of individual income tax should be ShenBaoZhi and the tax agency system, gradually set up by the enterprise, individual declaration, auditing and taxation agency business, form the taxpayer, agent and publican three party that restricts each other mechanism, and tax collection efforts. At the same time, timely collecting the stock trading net income tax, and the estate tax, given tax, personal property taxes, luxury consumption tax and a monopoly privileges business enterprise TeBieShui etc, in order to increase the income adjustment dynamics, forming income redistribution mechanism, make the area, industry groups between, between the gap between tend to rationalize, curb high income levels, rapid growth of income, prevent polarization.
3.3 broaden the employment channels, optimize employment environment.
Obtain employment is the people’s livelihood this, the country should improve the employment rate as an important goal of macroeconomic control. On one hand, it is the need to promote economic growth, on the other hand, is to solve the dual structure contradiction, effort to reduce low-income people, and improve the lives of the income of the effective way. Solving the employment and again obtain employment problem, need to broaden the employment channels, optimizing from employment environment in two aspects great effort, big time. The employment channels from broaden perspective, policy orientation should be: choose to increase employment as the center of economic growth mode, implement employment intensive or labor-intensive a plan of action. In particular, the one is fully exploit the state-owned enterprise, especially in large and medium-sized enterprise internal potential, the development diversified management, revitalize the enterprise idle resources, through the separation and FuYe restructuring, find a place for the surplus personnel, reduce the laid-off workers to society; Second, in the financial, finance, taxation, etc formulate preferential policy, to encourage and support the non-public sector of the economy, small and medium-sized enterprises and the development of tertiary industry; Three is in the implementation of active fiscal policy process, both as far as possible can effectively expand employment engineering projects; Four is development domestic labor market and international cross area to the labor market.
The optimization of employment environment Angle, the main policy should include: one is the macro environment, regions, party organizations at all levels and the government should formulate the corresponding employment plan and goal, adopt practical and effective measures, and gradually implement, realize. 2 it is to improve the urban and rural unity, internal and external opening, equal competition, an orderly Labour market.
3 it is to want to for the unemployed and the laid-off worker to provide timely full employment information, employment training service, laborer can get the timely employment opportunities and good conditions for employment. 4 it is to promote the implementation of the employment preferential policies, such as the implementation shall be exempted from income tax, encourage unemployed personnel and the laid-off worker our enterprise.
3.4 construction and improve the social security system.
Social security as a mechanism for social welfare, is the product of modern industrial society, its essence and function are in order to solve the social change and transformation process because the gap between rich and poor and the society by poverty and social development. Therefore, social security has the relief valve, shock absorber and the role of the pressure reducing valve. At present, in solving the gap between rich and poor this difficult problem, our country must give full play to the function of the social security system, adjusting income distribution in at the same time, speed up the construction and improvement of all kinds of social security system, in order to ensure a social of low-rise between urban and rural residents of the basic life, avoid transformation period the fortunes of the wealth of society crazy robbing and poor strata life safeguard system lack of the case. In the current social security system are not perfect, and difficult to ensure the basic life of low-rise urban and rural residents. Especially rural social security is basically a blank, mainly still depend on the collective land contracted management as the foundation of the family protection mode. Therefore, the current to speed up the rural construction and improvement of residents in minimum life guarantee system, pension and medical insurance system, and to carry out. At the same time, in the city residents, should by implementing the minimum wage system and guarantee subsistence security system, make unemployed worker, difficult enterprise worker, retired worker and lose labor ability of residents in life basic security.