The article introduces the problem of environmental protection existed in the international trade,and explains the concept,characteristics and the content form of environmental trade barriers. It outlines the impact which environmental barriers on internationaltrade,particularly on the impact of Chinese foreign trade. The article also illustrates the severe tests faced by several higher foreign-exchange industries in international trade due to environmental trade barriers constraints. This writing integrates with the view ofsustainable development and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions to the issue of environmental trade barriers.
Environmental damage in China in recent years has been the crisis to the healthy development of foreign trade and national economy as a whole, environmental trade barriers greatly affect our exports, spanning environmental trade barrier the barrier in the area of international trade, ensure the sustainable and stable development of China’s foreign trade, to be explored effective strategies and measures, reduce the pretext of environmental protection environment, the impact of trade barriers.
2 environmental issues in international trade.
As the globalization of environmental problems such as shortage of resources, ecological destruction emerging, confirms environmental pollution without borders say, environmental problems have become the focus of the common concern of humankind. Many international organizations and community groups have launched international green movement, developed a variety of regulations, regulations, standards, relevant non-governmental organizations was established to promote international environmental protection.
International on environment problem in international trade on the original resolution is reached when the GATT, countries in the world of different regional differences in environmental standards is causing the conflict between environment and trade. Contradictions between environment and trade at the beginning of social division and exchange activities will exist, manifested in trade activities with growth mechanism of unlimited demand for natural resources and has a stability mechanism of ecological environment on the contradiction between resources limitations on the supply of, and intensification of international trade activities be intensified and the deterioration of environmental and resource issues. States for the implementation of environmental protection measures to restrict or prohibit the export of environmental trade directly affect the normal development of international trade, especially the impact on developing countries more.
3 environmental trade barrier.
In recent years, the emphasis on the ecological environment, Governments for environmental legislation, the implementation of environmental measures, promote green consumption, developed a disaggregated environment trade barrier, green regulations in developed countries in particular, has introduced a series of environmental law, environmental trade barriers began to play its role in international trade .
Environmental trade barrier formed late in the 1980 of the 20th century as a new non-tariff barriers, the most typical is the 1991 United States ban on imports of Mexico’s tuna and its products, on the grounds that in order to “protect” the dolphin’s survival. Since then many countries began to follow suit, environmental trade barriers as a means of positive regulations of international trade and the pace of internationalization .
3.2 concepts and features.
Environmental trade barrier, also known as the green barrier, is a new non-tariff barriers to trade, take limited resources in some countries is international trade, the environment and human health has developed a range of demanding, higher than the internationally recognized environmental standards or the vast majority of countries, restrict or prohibit the import of foreign goods, to trade protection purpose.
Environmental trade barrier has the following characteristics: (1) form of rationality and legitimacy of the content, (2) the transitivity of the breadth of coverage and implementation, and (3) protection mode of concealment and (4) the discriminatory effect .
3.3 the content and form.
3.3.1 environmental technical standards.
High levels of science and technology in developed countries, strict mandatory technical standards are developed in the production and technology developed, less or do not consider the actual situation of the developing countries, for developing countries is therefore inaccessible, and thus easily developing products excluded from the markets of developed countries.
3.3.2 environmental labels.
Environmental label, also known as the green flag, or ecological mark, refers to the certification agencies pursuant to certain environmental standards, targets or requirements, and meet the requirements of a specific sign, to prove to consumers that the products from the research, development, production, consumption, recycling in all aspects of compliance with environmental requirements, minimal harm to the environment or health. Environmental labeling and easy pose a potential trade discrimination and the reality of trade conflicts, can play a role in inducing the consumer to select and to export products to the market share of trade barriers.
3.3.3 green packaging system.
Green package system refers to the specification for the packaging of goods (), the packaging materials to be used, easy to recycle or conserve resources, reduce waste natural decomposition, without violating the environmental requirements of laws, rules and regulations related to packaging.
3.3.4 green subsidies.
Refers to a number of countries, especially in tax subsidies on exports of developing countries enterprises, or in cost of products for export subsidies to protect the environment and the cost of resource consumption, lower environmental standards or in international trade, so that products are significantly lower than the prices of similar products in importing countries, affecting the market competitiveness of similar products in importing countries, importing countries to take measures against Green subsidies.
3.3.5 the health inspection system.
In the provisions of the agreement on health and animal and plant health measures relating to hygiene and sanitary and phytosanitary standards, which provides that Member States influence people and animals to protect them from pollution, toxins, additives, ensure that the human health damage from plants and animals carry diseases, the right to take appropriate control measures.
3.3.6 green tariffs and market access.
Green tariffs for importing countries to environmental and human health, on recognized health hazards of pollution of the environment, of imported products, in addition to paying normal tariff, environment particularly imposed import surcharge. Market access-importing countries to pollution of the environment and harm human health and the violation of the relevant international conventions on the environment or the domestic environmental laws and regulations and take measures to limit the import of foreign products.
3.3.7 the environment trade sanctions.
A violation of international conventions on environmental protection, international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora protection, causing environmental pollution, loss of wildlife diversity acts taken by a trade sanctions.
4 environmental trade barrier’s influence on China’s foreign trade.
4.1 impact on China’s export market.
Developed and market in China’s exports are concentrated in Europe and Korea and other newly industrialized countries and regions, their export share accounted for 80%, most of these countries and regions are to the World Trade Organization and the members of the Committee on the environment, is now shifting from stage of environmental legislation in environmental enforcement stage. Comparatively high standard of environmental technologies in these countries and areas, such as demanding environmental standards for developing countries, which will make our product range in export markets are faced with reduced risk.
4.2 impact on China’s export growth.
On international trade in industrial products, agricultural products in trade, investment and trade in services, intellectual and other proposed environmental specifications, and these trade for a large proportion of the export trade in China’s foreign trade, if developed countries on imports of products of these classes implement the strict environmental standards, its resulting environmental trade barrier, will seriously affect China’s export growth.
4.3 impact on China’s export of product cost and business benefits.
Environment development of trade barriers affecting products from production to sale and scrap handling of all aspects of the entire product life cycle, its process management system for pollution-free, pollution-free environment. China Enterprise lack funds, environmental technology backward, to reached import national of environment standard, had to increased about environmental of inspection, and test, and certification and signed, procedures and paid related costs, also required on products appearance decoration, and export label and merchandise advertising do significantly of adjustment, this is bound will increased export products of various Middle costs and the additional fee, led China export products of production cost improve, makes export products of enterprise of statistics was effect.
4.4 impact on bilateral or multilateral trade relations.
Developed countries of unilateral trade measures taken in the name of environmental protection to restrict imports of foreign products, triggered by increasing number of multilateral and bilateral trade friction, with less than the boycott comes from the regional environmental standards for a lot of regional products other than case, which formed only a free trade area of the regional economic organizations in the developed countries, made it impossible for Chinese intervention .
4.5.1 the packaging industry.
Started in January 2006 “environmental packaging product recovery rates of more than 85%” this standard packaging industry impact on developing countries is large. Disposable tableware in China because they had no “green standard” prohibited from export markets in Europe and America, many commodities exported to Europe and also to pay high packaging waste disposal costs.
4.5.2 the home appliance industry.
Import tariffs were cut China’s household electrical appliance products in international trade, advantage to reduce the price of domestic products, foreign brands in quality advantage was filled on the difference in price, so as to pose some threat to China’s household electrical appliance products. Under the influence of environmental trade barrier, Shanghai small household appliances exports to the EU is clearly downward trend in August 2006, in the European Union after the implementation of the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment directive, small household appliances export volume reduced to the lowest level of the year in Shanghai. And if the EU technical barriers to the implementation of the eco-design directive as well as on the design, procurement of raw materials to recycling of electrical and electronic products throughout the product life cycle highlighted the stringent environmental requirements, which also larger impact on China-related exports.
4.5.3 textile and garment industry.
Textile and garment industry is the pillar of China’s export industry, is also a high degree of dependence on outside of trade, after China joins the WTO, and the industry benefit from a larger, but the environmental impact of trade barriers, China’s textile industry are also subject to different constraints. According to the case to know, by the clothing did not meet the standard for eco-textiles, is punishable by a fine or resold by the State to the place of production, often happen. For example OKO-TES100 textile environmental standards adopted by the EU countries, formaldehyde, heavy metals, on imported clothing to limit the content of more than 100 kinds of harmful substances such as preservatives, these provisions on the formation of China’s clothing export technical barriers to trade and environment.
China is a major agricultural country, subject to environmental impact is agricultural trade barriers, problems of Chinese agricultural products export a lot, mainly domestic outbreak of plants and animals, farm animal drug residues. In recent years, occurred in China involves the technical barriers to trade of plants and plant products have more than 40 items, which involves export issue 17, 80% export enterprises subject to different effects.
Japan is the number one export market for agricultural products in China, Japan Government implemented the “positive list system”, my volume of agricultural exports to Japan have fallen sharply, because of the detection system for agricultural chemical residues in food including 302 food, agricultural chemicals and 54 799 limits. The standard is approximately 3~5 times that of all the provisions in force, and the limited index more stringent. This list covers the majority of China’s agricultural products in Japan.
4.5.5 the chemical industry.
Chemical products in the chemical industry in international trade and export have more stringent requirements for pharmaceutical products, mainly affected by the dangerous chemicals for export of such product classification management, strict management of chemicals, on the import of new chemicals management, the management of pesticides, the impact on management requirements of synthetic detergent. Such as the United States in the very early started to restricted and prohibited imports of Chinese herbal medicine, imported drugs into the United States subject to United States food and Drug Administration inspection and domestic individual varieties in China through the United States food and Drug Administration inspection of manufacturers over more than 20 enterprises only, direct impact on the industry’s exports.
4.6 the sustainable development strategy.
Occupy an important position in the sustainable development strategy in the global economy. Sustainable development in international trade, economic development, for environmental problems is produced in the economy, only one party can solve; second, must take into account the economic development from environmental and ecological resources, support and development of China’s sustainable development strategy is to seek sustainable development of society. Nature of the relationship between environment and trade is the relationship between environment and development, only good trade and environmental policies can promote effective allocation of environmental resources, environment and trade to mutual benefit.
5 countermeasure and suggestion.
5.1 increasing environmental awareness, improve environmental legislation.
5.1.1 to intensify its publicity and education, enhancing environmental awareness, establish a Green idea.
Environmental trade barriers by developed countries to develop, in developing countries, which ensures that healthy sustained economic development in the world. For the sustainable development of China’s foreign trade undertaking and the overall economy, required for popularization of ecological knowledge and environmental advocacy for all so that it recognizes the quality of the environment and their own interests, so as to raise people’s awareness of environmental protection, actively promote the cause of environmental protection.
In addition, our country should establish a correct concept of green, Green Guide public consumption, for the development of green industry in China to explore space. Especially in China’s enterprises should take the plunge into environmental trends, positive self-improvement, strengthening environmental technology research and development, to seize advantages in environmental protection industry, strengthen the competitiveness in international trade, break the limits of environmental trade barrier .
5.1.2 strengthened environmental protection legislation, environment legal system.
In recent years has issued a series of environmental laws, resources and environment-related laws and many environmental regulations and standards, basically formed the laws, regulations, rules and standards constitute a system of laws. As environmental issues heating up and complicate the international situation, China should strengthen environmental legislation and environmental modification and perfection of the legal system, and to increase the intensity of law enforcement, create a favorable legal environment for the sustainable development of foreign trade enterprises.
5.1.3 international environmental research and international cooperation in the field of environmental protection.
Environmental barriers to a wide range of international trade, involving the category, the environmental protection legislation, specialized research institutions should be established in China and foreign trade information system of environmental technical standards, understanding environmental regulations, technology and standards of the major trading countries, maintains its own interests, of avoiding trade friction.
In addition, as a member of the WTO, China should actively participate in the multilateral trade agreements and the multilateral trading system, safeguarding the interests of developing countries, and to enhance international exchange and collaboration, to break through various forms of environmental trade barrier in China .
5.2 actively promote the development of environmental protection industry and environmental protection into trade development strategy.
Development of environmental protection industry to improve the pollution prevention capabilities of Chinese enterprises, can overcome the environmental trade barriers for their products provide strong support and drive the development of related industries. In addition, you should develop meet the technical standards and requirements of the situation, management into the legal order, and to remove barriers to trade and environment impact strategic planning, changing the traditional model of development, implementing ecological environment-centric pattern of green growth, sustainable path.
5.3 promote environmental cost internalization and implementation of cleaner production.
Environment cost including development, and production, and transport, and using, and recovery and processing merchandise and the by caused of environmental pollution, and ecological damage and resources waste by required costs, for reduce and enterprise operating about of effect, foreign trade enterprise can will environment and resources costs calculation in market prices within, makes environment resources cost internal of, such can implementation trade comparison cost advantage of products production and export, conducive to environmental and fair competition, and elimination has environment by caused of trade obstacles, makes enterprise from fundamentally can beyond environment trade barriers.
Clean production to overcome the phase out of production and environmental protection issues in enterprise management, enterprise technical innovation with targeted, that is, become an important foundation of implemented environment management system. Through the implementation of cleaner production, increase market competitiveness in resource utilization, and integration of international to adapt to new developments, create conditions for breakthrough environmental trade barrier.
5.4 strengthening certification of environment-related work.
International environmental management system standards certification to the enterprise is not compulsory, but it has the characteristics of impartiality, interests and improve the efficiency of the enterprises to apply for certification for enterprise should attach importance to and strengthen the certification of this class.
5.5 it is forbidden “foreign garbage” flows.
Driven by economic interests and lack of moral concept, there have been many things imported industrial waste and hazardous substances, this serious breach of the provisions of the Basel Convention, also seriously affect the ecological environment, our country should be vigilant, take effective measures to prevent the entry of such products.
5.6 green marketing role into full play.
Environmental awareness and marketing ideas together form a green marketing, consumer trend toward green products, green marketing become the embodiment of the competitiveness of enterprises. On the marketing strategy of green marketing in particular about combination of green, in product strategy, marketing strategy, channel strategy and pricing policy reflects the very strong green features. Green marketing in China has great potential for development, should refer to international green marketing strategy of China’s export enterprises, to open up new ways to enhance competitiveness, thus breaking environmental trade barrier.
5.7 the international dynamics, breaking environmental trade barrier.
Keep an eye on dynamics of international trade barriers, grasp the development trend and characteristics of, and take effective measures to break the environmental trade barrier, expanding exports to China. Need to study the foreign environmental trade barriers, improving the quality of the product, sum up blocked experience in recent years, according to the relevant requirements, to develop effective countermeasures, smoothly into the international market for our products.
With the economic development and with the international trade of our country frequently, will face an increasing number of environmental trade barrier in foreign trade, should strengthen awareness of the environmental trade barrier, looking for better methods of breaking environmental trade barriers, so as to promote the healthy development of China’s foreign trade.