Reform of curriculum materials, is one of the important elements of education reform in the world today. China’s reform of geography education sector to adapt to this trend, bravely break through the traditional uniform geography curriculum model, “an outline of a book” as “an outline of how this” or “outline of”. Geography courses as a branch of the Centre, integrated experimental times. A new version of geography teaching materials in the system, only on the content and compilation methods, and strive to innovative and unique, par with foreign material.
From the perspective of curriculum model, PEP Club, Shanghai, Guangdong, Sichuan, Beijing Normal University and other versions remain branch system. Zhejiang is the comprehensive system of plate-type, three partial merge to geography, history, political and social classes, but content system independent of each other.
Drive-in is the social class of the integrated system in Shanghai, to geography, history and politics inherent in three disciplines based on point contact full linking, greater pace of reform.
From the system point of view of the arrangement, the version used by the presentation of the whole to the part, which first told the world geography, the second day of Chinese-speaking geographical, and finally the local geography.
From a formal point of view of the establishment, changed the traditional rigid and rigid establishment, descriptive method, more attention to the cognitive characteristics suitable for students. Each version for color printing and color printing image and considerable increase in the number, amount fell every picture, clearer and easier to read, the text is more vivid, more akin to student life, and reflects the processes of teaching and learning as much as possible, some columns, such as “a reading,” “take a look at”, “think about it”, also very attractive.
However, because the rapid reform the force with which sth. breaks out, and we are too late to make full preparations, thus in theory and in practice some difficult contradictions.
First, geographical “textbook” and “learning materials”
The past, we have been prepared according to the logical system of geography teaching materials, care only about what basic knowledge of geographic knowledge is most valuable, what students should be trained, but rarely consider whether they can accept and willing to accept. Only as a geography teaching materials of geographic knowledge of the carrier, is the basis for teachers teach and students learn, do not see the content and the fabric of geography teaching materials for students and effective learning of geographic knowledge of the potential impact. As learners ‘ reading material-mainly Geography textbook, is difficult to play its proper effect, affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of learning geography.
Therefore, geographic textbook should in followed geographic discipline logic order of Foundation Shang, to full reflected students of cognitive features, makes geographic discipline of logic order and students of psychological order in geographic textbook in the get perfect of unified, this is implementation geographic textbook be determined to learn material transformation of key, is geography material of essentials, geography material and textbook of difference is, it of selection and choreography more meet students learning geographic of psychological features, conducive to students learning geographic of successfully, promote its physical and mental of development.
To implementation geographic textbook be determined to learn material of transformation, new textbook in the of image sought to concise striking, meet students of perception law, to conducive to students geographic space concept of formation, for its accurate convenient geographic solutions and memory geographic things and principle provides full of table like pursuant to, thus promote its imagine force of development; textbook in the geographic things of show and expositions to meet students of thinking features and thinking way, textbook of choreography to easy-to-digest, by easy to difficult, appeared out knowledge migration of nature, makes geographic knowledge structure and students of cognitive structure unified up, promote students thinking ability of development; textbook of image design, and text narrative and the job system should has strong of enlightening, and fun, and readability and incentive role, conducive to thrown students learning geographic of motivation, application students of non-intelligence factors on learning process of restricting role, improve geographic learning of efficiency, promote students affection of development.
Second, the relationship between CPC and reduce the burden on students of geography textbooks.
Arising from the rapid development of geographical science to geography and man-land relationship of new knowledge, new ideas require penetration in the geography teaching materials, especially those with geographical knowledge of the consolidation principles or concepts of upper increase is necessary. However, if you increase the difficulty of this new knowledge to improve regarded as meaning only the advanced nature of geography teaching materials, will increase the burden of student learning, apparently with the original purpose of the reform of geography teaching materials, reducing students ‘ burden is contrary to. Therefore, this reform should add new knowledge, and efforts to reduce the original contents of the array of old, particularly the partition of geographic content.
Nine-year compulsory education should enable students to understand the main characteristics of our country and the world’s natural and human geography, and regional differences, partition not too small, not too detailed not to geographical knowledge, how much of a point on the gain and loss, advanced nature of the geography teaching materials should be reflected in the “new, sophisticated and flexible.” “New” is to have new content, new concepts, special host computer to increase some concepts to facilitate migration and assimilation of geographical knowledge. “Fine” is to cut the traditional cumbersome knowledge, not for individual gain and loss of knowledge, ability, and concepts, such as the correct view of population, resource and environmental views of education. “Live” performance in the textbook numbering is not rigid, flexible, strong readability. Only in this way geography textbooks of CPC and reducing students ‘ burden to unite in opposition.
Third, the relationship between characteristics of geography and geography teaching materials contents value
Geography is known historically to study geography and man-land relationship. But because of its role in social development is not as significant as certain subjects, resulting in its study on the connotation of shake, as well as the geographical Territories today many people keen to discussion on the scientific nature and value of geography. How geography is hard science or soft science, its contributions to society where, theoretically is by no means a large reservoir of things clearly, this situation directly affects the value of school geography textbook, which influence students ‘ awareness of the value of geography. In fact, this is not a question of demand a definition of geography, to establish its scientific boundaries, but today’s trend is all the area around the specific problem of science come together, in the process of combining each profession itself to the use of specific technologies and concepts, such as poverty, overpopulation, scarcity of resources and environmental degradation, and other major challenges. In addressing these issues, geography and other subjects in the mutual penetration of their value. In fact, the geography is in urban planning, land management, production and distribution, energy use, resource development, environmental protection and population control plays an important role.
Therefore, while we are on the nature and geography of value, but also to focus on geography and other subjects of joint operations, reflected the value of the common solutions to practical problems. This value is the leading direction of today’s school geographical teaching material value (in the form of geographic topics prepared teaching material is based on the values of this). To this end, in geographical teaching material on the selection and arrangement, to take due account of such values. Let students know to a regional location and geographic spatial relations of things on the significance of social development, and let them learn this form of evaluation, so that they truly understand the value of geography, achieve the purpose of learning.
Four relationships, knowledge of geography teaching and quality training
Knowledge teaching ability training and examination-oriented education to quality education, which is the main theme of the current curriculum reform. We must dare to abandon old trivial knowledge of geography, the thought of quality education throughout the geography teaching materials, and makes it organically to geographical knowledge system. Contains three levels of quality education.
First is the physiological potential of student development, geography textbooks in the thawing of the large number of images, frequently applied students with vivid images of the senses, promote the development of students ‘ thinking, develop the right brain potential.
Followed by psychological quality training. Regardless of image, text and job in geography textbooks which system should have sufficient intelligence to facilitate students ‘ geographical observation, memory, thinking, imagination and the cultivation of creative ability, especially skills development. Geography teaching materials that you want to always run through “method”, where the method is a method of geographic thought, which geologists look at the world of scientific method, and method for learning geography. Geography teaching materials to be lively and interesting, to stimulate students ‘ intellectual curiosity and the spirit of exploration, formation of positive emotions.
Third, cultural literacy, geography textbooks in the narrative of geographic knowledge at the same time, in connection with the concept of patriotism education, environment, education, special national condition education to factors, dignified, the students to the scientific understanding of national conditions, enhance self-esteem and self-confidence. Organic manifestation of these ideas in the geography teaching materials, so as to play a subtle role.
Five relationships, regional geographic partition mode
Regional geographical pattern is one of the challenges faced in this reform of geography teaching materials. Geography of China, for example, two fractions, Tri-, Quad-fractional and even very, advocates vary. Junior high school students only requires an understanding of some geographical regions of our country and its main characteristics, initial understanding regional differences within the general trend, aware of these differences on human production, life, and have an important impact on social development, to form local conditions and transform the nature of nature, the scientific concept of development of production. Therefore, Chinese geographical divisions should not be too small, specific of a partition too small to be caught in a complex knowledge transfer, and ignore the understanding of macro-regional differences, would we exaggerate, cannot achieve the purpose of partition learning geography.
In addition, the Division mostly natural geographical features as the main basis of human geography in China, in particular, reflect significant differences in economic development due to the full. How to combine features of physical geography and human geography, dividing partition mode is more proper, is still the subject of further study in the future.
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