“Development of geographic thought ability” is one of the nine-year compulsory education outline requirements for teaching purposes, and embody of geographical thinking ability, dependent on the geographical character reaches level of thinking. Therefore, in the geography teaching, cultivate students ‘ quality of geographical thinking become our priority.
First, the training of thinking in the teaching of geography:
1. (Hon refining) of training students thinking agility
Impetus to the development of students ‘ thinking include: motivations, desires, interests, hobbies. Interest is most active factors stimulate students ‘ thinking, and the question is to stimulate interest in the inherent “hormone” and “catalyst”. Its way to: interest in questioning → → → knowledge → motivated thinking. Refining question is provided for students of a magnetic field, and textbooks (geographical knowledge) as inducer, conductor with the teacher, arouse their interest, curiosity and thirst for knowledge, that they learn the impulse to initiate and actively thinking.
In high school under the geographical section of the land resources in the teaching, students at the end of the “fundamental characteristics of land resources in China” post, teachers can start and active students ‘ thinking through questions, and students ‘ own imagination, drawn by the students themselves about the major guidelines for the utilization of land resources in China. For example: “If you’re the head of the State land administration, faced with the present situation of land resources in China, what policies and measures should be taken to change the situation? “(The core issues, use principle),” If you’re in charge of China’s agricultural work, on the current situation of cultivated land and forest land for which intends to promote mine? “(The basic national policy, expanding no-tillage combined with increasing annual output), such problems may increase student participation, strengthening the exciting point, release their full brain potential. Such as: less against our woodlands, cultivated land per capita, what should I do? Little reserve arable land potential cases issues such as how to improve agricultural production, require students to make a quick answer and speak to students quickly affirmation, negation or complement. In this way, can make students active, fluency, speed up the process of thinking. Students through their own analysis of dynamic brain, drawn and written on the book of the same structure, access to the sense of success and happiness, at the same time, improve analytical skills and ability, enhanced agility of thinking.
2. emphasize hands-on, cultivation of students ‘ thinking of researching
If the language of teaching only the teacher or textbook written symbols from an abstract to another abstract, it cannot be aroused deep interest in the intellectual content of the school. Geographical thinking can deepen student, achieve great minds converge, the purpose of learning. In response to this problem, when teaching can be created to give students hands-on (brain) participatory teaching situation and guide the student immigration, make them on his own analysis and judgement, layers of problems solved, eventually found the right answer.
A case study of teaching section of the Beijing traffic, divide students into several issues before class group and prepared the Beijing traffic 1949-1992 (roads, bridges, trams, buses, taxis, bicycles, overpass sth ) Data and picture of material information for students to read to find. Progressive teachers list only a few road problems in class, students themselves query information, processing, and analysis of new data, and to seek the relevant constraints, design solutions, make their own conclusions after optimization.
A. road construction in Beijing which are planned in the main traffic arteries? The second ring, three-ring-how many kilometers in length?
B. According to the 1949 ~1992 years data analysis, development is expected at this rate, what will render to 2000 Beijing traffic situation? Number will reach much?
C. up to 1992, Beijing’s second ring, three-ring, ring how many overpasses on? In the Xidan, East intersection, feasibility of the construction of a bridge? Why?
D. According to the information and you have first-hand experience, comprehensive analysis of the traffic in Beijing which changes have occurred after the founding of new China? From these you find which urgent solution of problems in the development?
Guided by these issues, students on the traffic situation on roads in Beijing after a clearer impression, came in 1949 with ~1992 annual growth rate of interest, and inspire students to 2000 status, amount of traffic in Beijing. At this point, the students ‘ thinking began to deepen teachers grasped this point, thereby guiding students to question, explanation, built in the East, two bustling Xidan junction analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the overpass, books of geographic knowledge activation, specific, lead the students ‘ thinking deep. In this way, to hands-on, dynamic exploration of the brain-based learning approach, “secluded study wins” cultivation of a student thinking of researching.
3. through maps, originality of cultivating students ‘ thinking
Create imagine penetrating thought, to form a creative thinking. Students ‘ imagination is very strong, but without proper guidance, would not soon to abstract real direction, forming creative thinking. Geography teaching map information is always separated from the carrier, in traditional teaching, on the map is only stressed to be reading, analysis charts, in fact, this is just a higher level of “picture” on the development of geographic thought, only a preliminary stage. Stages can be fully exploited, activation of brain potentials of students in middle school, on the development of thematic map making for students to develop broad thinking space, geography within the temporal and spatial thinking in an ideal free-ride, from the near to the distant, he, originality of thought for development. For example, at the end of regional geography learning in junior high schools, studied maps of knowledge by the teacher according to the junior high school, further explaining the mapping specification for mapping and simple program, and then by the students themselves free, draw a map of color small geographic topic. This arrangement for the job, significantly active students ‘ thinking imagination, homework time, many unexpected content is reflected in front of you. The savage on the map of the world, small footprint represents the legend of “savage” distribution, United States NBA basketball team background is a picture of the map red and blue stars and stripes, open coastal ports in China on the map of the 14 open ports and the SAR, the open area like a soaring dragon sth Basis for both science and creation of wealth to the romantic imagination. Students on in-depth understanding of geography and the pursuit of creative thinking is reflected in the formation of.
4. the emphasis on structure, develop students ‘ thinking deepness
Geographical thinking deepness, refer the students to be good at in-depth thinking on various geographical issues, grasp the nature of law and various geographical things and foresees the development of the whole process, while sensitive to contact and relationships between the various factors influencing; good comprehensive thinking and analysis problems. On the high school of the geography of the book section of the movement of the Earth is in difficulty, after completing this section knowledge, to the sum of the system, the systematization of the knowledge learned to form networks. When the teacher at the conclusion of this section, may be brought before “five belts formed on Earth, The changing of the seasons, and what is the root cause of geographic phenomena such as length of day and night? “This a problem, boot students discussion source, thought and Huang Chi skew of contact, at this time, teachers then in students has has scattered knowledge of Foundation Shang, according to around acting things Zhijian of causal contact, inspired students a step step analysis, and comprehensive, and abstract, and General, from a large number of perception in the abstract concept, summary law, formed is as follows knowledge structure, to training has students geographic thinking of deepness.
5. focus on training geography of critical thinking ability of students
Geographical thinking critically refers to the ability of calmly consider the geographical issues, independent analysis and evaluation of things, not superstitious “authoritative” views and not shaken by the hint. In actual teaching work, we tend to ignore the cultivation of this thinking, everyone knows, today’s technology and society, only people with the quality of critical thinking, to find out the many predecessor theory breakthrough, to come to the fore. As in geography teaching in junior middle schools, may lead students to the evaluation of characteristics of China in the past the word “vast” discussions. Does a vast, rich, but per capita take into account, contact our State will find, great demographic burden have made our “material” not anymore “Feng”. Students through this thought process, using existing geographical knowledge, negating the “vast” application on this Bonus Words in our national conditions, is a big breakthrough in the understanding. When taught in high school geography, analysis on the development of industrial and agricultural production conditions in a region, but also to have the critical thinking process. On the factors affecting the industrial “social condition” in the analysis, modern industry taking into account the professional collaboration needs, should be as professional and enterprise configurations together, form the aggregation effect. But considering the city as an industrial centre, after the industry reaches a certain density and scale, there are “saturation”, race, and fight for issues such as water, power, increased pollution, some industries have to fan out, some “light short” new industries in the new layout. Therefore, the same economic principles, the principles of layout, for different enterprises and different regions and different countries, different stage of economic and technical conditions, different have different application requirements. Through the discussion of these issues, allowing students to dialectically look at problems, critically accepted knowledge, principle. To enhance recognition, improve the accuracy of judgment. Thus, strengthening discussion is a good way to develop students ‘ geographic thinking critically.
In summary, geographical thinking of students of various qualities of highly developed that they enhanced process improvement of geographical thinking ability and wisdom. Geographical practice cultivating students ‘ quality of geographic thought in the teaching, training capacity is one of the main channel should arouse our full attention.