Hexi inland river basin from East to West including shiyang River, heihe, three major river systems of Shule River, divided by river basin level, the three major river systems are the tertiary basin, horse camp as the main stream of the heihe River’s largest tributaries of the River, to a four-level basin, where a horse camp focused on river basin ecological environment protection and sustainable economic and social problems.
, Horse Camp Creek Watershed ecological reality and urgency of environmental protection
1, horse camp River basin ecological environment
Horse camp is located in the middle of Hexi corridor river rises in the Northern qilian mountains cold Dragon Ridge, was of heihe River and two major river systems of shiyang River watershed, biggest tributary is East of heihe, watershed has a total area of 2,347 square kilometers, population 165,900, droughts typical temperate continental climate, with sunny, dry and rainless characteristics. Annual mean temperature in the region of 5.9, the average annual rainfall of 195 mm, 1695-2246 mm annual average evaporation, with less precipitation and evaporation is high the outstanding characteristics. 9,398 cubic metres of the total amount of available water resources in, less than 600 cubic metres per capita water resources, well below the internationally recognized 1700 m³ of water shortage alert level, surface water and groundwater in the basin after conversion and reuse many times, water reuse up to 144%, heihe water downward to Zhangye import.
Horse camp River irrigated area in shandan County is the only large irrigation areas, irrigation 324,200 acres, is an important commodity grain base of Hexi corridor. Since reform and opening up yilai, economic of fast development to irrigation area lay has must of substances Foundation, but predatory extensive management of short-term behavior also led has people on the basin ecological of serious damage, especially shandan army Racecourse, every year pioneers farming, damage grassland vegetation, and people race food, gradually eroded surrounded water conservation with, currently has extended to has qilian mountains feet, cultivated area has by 80 generation of 300,000 acres, increased to now of 400,000 acres, caused soil serious Sandy. According to the master, the incidence of sandstorms weather by only 70 5 times a year to increase to 24 times per year at present, the old “grey days, ye vast, wind blown grass low see sheep” beauty has gone forever. Meanwhile, water bodies, vegetation damage, gradually led to climate change–and little rain, heat, sandstorms weather increased year by year. According to statistics, irrigation area aperture Lake by 70 generation of 3,511 eye atrophy to currently of 125 eye, springs overflow flow by 70 generation of 1.8 vertical m/s, reduce to has currently of 0.8 vertical m/s, led part Lake dry, and underground water level decline, and forest blight apoptosis; Liqiao reservoir years stopped impoundment by 80 early of more than 55 million Limi reduce to now of 38 million Limi, reduce has more than 10 million Limi; Qi shop reservoir from 1996 began on no runoff regulation, just to maintain 13700 East Le people of life, annual from Liqiao reservoir dispensing 3 million cubic for livelihoods.
Throughout the basin bottom up constituted a “sandy areas to agricultural areas, and agricultural areas to the animal husbandry district, and animal husbandry areas to forest and grassland areas, and snow to the main peak of promoting” ecological deterioration, and also led to a series of economic and social issues, become irrigation area of uncertainties in the economic and social development of the ecological environment has become increasingly restrictive basin economy sustainable development of society.
”Without mastering theories, what can the” tributary of ecological environment deterioration threatens the ecological environment of heihe. Therefore, the horse camp and the utilization and protection of heihe River tributaries as important, if tributaries utilization level is too high, can disrupt the hydrological cycle, cannot meet the heihe River basin Hexi inland River watershed and even goals and objectives of the sustainable utilization of water resources.
2, basin water resources carrying capacity
Horse Camp Creek is a stream of the heihe River, is the territory of one of the largest inland river in shandan County, 176 km of rivers, fully mechanized penetration throughout in shandan County, water resources gross 93.98 million Limi, and basin water present situation of national economic sectors required total 109 million Limi, serious economic and social development water consumption beyond the carrying capacity of water resources, the reason there are several key points:
First, the thought of the traditional concept of water resources has been imprisoned people, broad irrigation, irrigation, Ming-cast fall night irrigation practices long bound of breakthrough, and beyond the development of the irrigation way. Bounded by Liqiao reservoir, downstream on the economic structure, water use habits, very different, water contradictions are acute, waste of water in the upper reaches of staggering, only 40% of the water resources are used effectively.
Second, the horse Camp Creek Watershed in the riverbed, water conservancy Foundation facilities emptied, soil erosion area of forest structure on the left bank of the lower on unreasonable collection of runoff in sloping land, lack of engineering measures, measures of a valid block, sediment into rivers increased dramatically accelerates the reservoir sedimentation, Liqiao reservoir sediment to now 3 million Limi, seriously affect the safe operation of the reservoir.
Third, in water project construction delays, lack of control in the upper basin reservoirs hub storage engineering, project, and seepage in canal system seriously, some villages still soil Canal or river water, makes a lot of leakage, evaporation of water is lost, water losses larger.
Its four, agricultural structure not reasonable, grain by imbalance, high consumption water crop and high consumption water enterprise makes water resources total insufficient, break has original of water ecological balance, economic social development not full consider water resources conditions, rural population of quickly expansion, new of city consumption groups on water supply demand of increased, led Government and functions sector in coordination production life water of while, ignored has ecological water, encroached has ecological water. In shandan County liberation early has population 57,400 people, to now has increased to 202,100 people, increased has 144,700 people, growth 252%; and because basin is located in the Eurasia hinterland, is very strong type climate, drought less rain, water resources deficiencies, from 50-60 years generation Government called farmers pioneers farming, to 80 generation so far of reform and opening up and makes to rich opportunities of farmers more excessive to reclamation grassland, and slope, upstream cultivated area increasingly large, downstream insurance irrigation area but increasingly small, East Le Township 60,000 acres land sandy, per capita cultivated land insufficient 0.5 acres, old OASIS faced Sandy of crisis. At the expense of lower reaches of the upper reaches of the ecological system in return for the survival and development, will inevitably lead to vicious circle for the entire eco-system.
The five, streamflow decreased groundwater recharge are reduced; over-exploitation of groundwater, resulting in lakes, wetlands disappear, so that downstream water table decline up to 19 metres, well to the development of 250 metres deep. Qi Jia shop reservoir the water flooding in phenomenon and had to start from March 1 of each year since 2000 started to water wheel postponed for the period after April 15, to reduce the water flooding in to ensure downstream irrigation.
Therefore, whether the waste of water resources, water environment deterioration, number, watershed or regional populations, rapid economic and social development, are far beyond the carrying capacity of existing water resources.
Second, ways of strengthening ecological environmental protection
Face was burden of water resources, face limited of water supply ability and the increasingly growth of water demand, a effective of way is in accordance with the “ordered paid, supply and demand balance, structure optimization, intensive efficient” of approach through construction water market to protection and again reasonable configuration existing of water resources, savings water, volume water development, to for will required, enhanced water resources on economic social sustainable development of protection ability.
Third, strengthening ecological environmental protection measures
1, through the “World Water Day” and “Chinese water week” and other water-saving campaign put up water-saving flags and banners, enhance people’s awareness of water-saving.
2, foster, left bank, in the lower basin-wide chess ideas, close coordination, water control in solidarity and common development.
3, river basin ecological environment deterioration, disease in the downstream, upstream in the root, it must be in upper and middle reaches of returning farmland to forest and grassland, non-steep slope land clearing, Lake spring wells, protection, use after, then configuration.
4, drill wells to establish supervision system within the Valley, reasonably well, develop water standards, means improved water metering, regulation with price leverage water, preventing excessive exploitation of groundwater.
5, adoption of irrigation district reconstruction, increase the intensity of upper and middle reaches of the proportion of water saving project and, in particular the third dam irrigation area to do a good job on canal system supporting, seepage, equipped with facilities for water, metering, water conservation, farmland conservation in the lower use of water-saving irrigation and ecology on water, gradually increase the contribution of technology to water.
6, vigorously readjust the agricultural structure, Xia Kuoqiu, compression high water consumption of crop area, reducing summer filling pressure, reducing the water disputes and promote social stability.
7, at horse camp, along the slope along the river bed of the River grass to plant trees, build green corridors, improving vegetation, restoration ecology.
8, on the optimal allocation of water resources reasonable development and efficient use, and effective protection and comprehensive, thus greatly improving the bearing capacity of water resources.
9, while for upstream water especially in army charged, collect costs of pollution prevention, control non-point source pollution, restore and protect Malaysian camp Beach vegetation, water conservation, wetland clearance to play, to reduce pollution from upstream to downstream, to increase the bearing capacity of water environment bearing capacity of water resources increases.
10, actively fighting for water transfer, increase production and living, ecological water resources coordination, take the road of sustainable development.