Buddhist literature refers to the content of Buddhism as a theme, aimed at Evangelical Buddhism belief of literary works. Trace the origin of Buddhist literature, starting from the earliest Buddhist Scriptures into China. As the Buddhist scriptures were translated into Chinese, Buddhist scriptures in the literary work was recognized and accepted in Chinese, is followed from the monk’s literary creation, because China has been a tradition of monks, expression in ancient writers also wrote a large number of Buddhist Zen literature. From to the monks in Sutra literature literature and thus extends to the scholars ‘ literature, formed the Chinese Buddhist literature can be traced to the development process.
First, the origin of the Sutra literature
Sutra literature originates from the Buddhist scriptures from India since the Sutra was translated into Chinese, Buddhist in Middle-Earth bearing fruit. When the Buddha, lived, for the disciples to understand the profound Buddhist, “disease and medicine”, “should be” way of saying the Dharma. His use of method main is a figurative analogy, such as << Vimalakirti said. Manjushri asked disease >> the Buddha said: I to countless, all sorts of reasons, analogy words, speech Dharma. Later, popular Hong-the one Buddha were disciples of the inheritance, and reflects when assembled Buddhist scriptures a high literary level. Highly developed when Buddhism literature of China, this tradition was further carried forward. During Buddhist scriptures were translated into Chinese, translated by the Masters using transliteration, translation and literal translation, and other means, at the same time using a variety of literary techniques to Polish, translated into Chinese Buddhist scripture as possible after India Sutra’s original appearance.
In the Buddhist scriptures we see, there are many Scriptures in part using a variety of literary techniques. << the Vimalakirti Sutra >> Vimalakirti Ju Shishi diseases that people on the magical power of description:
Elderly Vimalakirti your thoughts at that time, new text scholarship is Shi Li and mass are born, which vows to empty their indoor, remove all, and all the waiters, only buy a bed, to disease and lying. Manjusri master Lee in his room, see the room empty, no all in all, a bed sleep alone sth
This article describes when Manjushri to ask when disease, Vimalakirti is God as shown in his residence into the empty House ten feet square, which in addition to bed without the one thing, showing the various method of a null.
<< Dhammapada >>, there are also extensive use of analogy rhetorical texts, such as:
Ruorenshou old, bad evil Chi. Than one day boost by the Fa-rectification. Sleep care also, all the HIV drug elimination. Life and death of Takeo, such as the snake skin removal.
Article here used the familiar things as metaphor, very vivid and profoundly explains life accept the Fa-rectification, turn over a new leaf, and this is actually a meaning profound philosophical poem.
Some sutras can also complete the reading of literary works. In such classics of the most famous is << Buddhist Jataka >>.
<< Buddhist Jataka >> is documented here and in the world do merit the Buddha stories. It is in India tales, myths, poetry, formed on the basis of the maxim. The story set to a lively stories, praised the Buddha past self-interest altruism, JI-moving thing sentient, is of universal education.
<< Buddhist Jataka >> each of the story is roughly divided into three parts. First part is the Buddha of this earthly conditions. Another part is that he acted in the past, characterized him as a deer, monkeys, rabbits, pigeons, or like this is one of the Kings, nobles, merchants, suffering from poor to cross off all beings. The last section is cognate, from earthly death of Buddha, have come forward to explain things associated with the earthly, that is what the Buddha himself, doing evil as victims or those who oppose the Buddha and enlightenment all the disciples. << Buddhist Jataka >> people’s distinct character, moving plot twists and turns, is the rare masterpieces of literature.
Other literary works are the << of Buddhist sutras; hundred vehicles with >>. Father of modern literature in China Lu Xun on its highly respected, and have funded their gifts of India. << hundred vehicles >> is the 100 collection of Fables, each story is by plots full story to illustrate a profound truth. If there is an article << step described elderly >> cloud:
I had a rich elderly, left and right of the people, to take effect, are done respectfully. When the elderly salivary, paternity person to pedal around.
There’s a fool, not riding, as is: “If upon, all people riding; upon when I step in the van. 」
So the elders is to cough when the salivary; this fools even lift the foot, as elders, broken lip fractured tooth.
Language fool public opinion for the elderly: “thou shalt tap my lip, why?”
Dayan of fools: “If the elderly upon landing, flatter has stepped around the net. I wish to take, not meichang. To this, upon export, feet-first take, hope you.
When all things shall be. Time not to, established strong skill, return to upset, to be so, when known around the world “time” and “”.
This is about a rich man’s servants want to please him, but counterproductive story, explains everything has a time, time is not to, reluctantly pursuit, but will bring trouble. Let the world know when to do what is in line with present-day, outdated or not cannot be forced into it.
Literature of Buddhism into China, is the beginning of Chinese Buddhist literature, various expressive and artistic skills in the works of Buddhist sutras, later laid a good foundation for the development of Buddhist literature.
Second, the monks of literature development
Spread of Buddhism in China and the rise, thanks to carrying forward the history monks. On the overnight method, they arrested not just limited to oral preaching, but also to spread in the form of poetry. Many of these monks also go down in poems of monks. Monks not only poetry, Ode to the brave in the works, also sujiang and pien-wen.
Monks started after the rise of the poem is in the Eastern Jin dynasty, during the Eastern Jin dynasty of Dun (314-366) is China’s earliest poems of monks, this exists only in his writing “eight levels vegetarian poem” three.
Lease this monk (?-916) << >> sowing seedling poems; so far is were we blessed by monks and famous.
Hand-filled green seedling field, bow and water transit.
Pure-hearted as road, going backwards is forward.
Chanmen row, live, sit, lie, in Tam Shui, cut firewood sth Is Zen, as expressed in the poem is based on the experience of transplanting Buddhist, authors in this poem is not just stressing “step back and wing” such as policy, but mainly emphasizes the relativity of things, low is higher under certain conditions, is back. Understand this truth, they broaden their own horizons, adjusting their view of the world, to achieve the higher realm of mind and behavior.
In addition to writing poetry, and some monks also wrote the Ode to the brave, to realize the dimensions of expression. Printing in the Song dynasty Zen master << grinding bricks for the border is not difficult >> is this Ode to the brave.
Mirror grinding brick not embarrassed, suddenly the light Millennium.
Laughing meditation asks the Buddha, since cattle more whip.
This Ode to the brave is a Zen master enlighten Matsu and, after the first two sentences is that Buddhist, a treadle-operated tilt hammer for hulling rice can achieve a fantastic realm, light-hearted, and understand thoroughly, grinding bricks for mirror is not difficult, the key is able to penetrate. Two sentences is to say those who know only after sitting person seeking enlightenment, also whip cattle line, did not appreciate the Chi outward seeking is not available, can also indulge in “mirror grinding bricks.”
Mysterious sleep master << Yongjia masters Doha >>, in the form of ballads describing the spiritual insights and licence road sense. This is the first full-length songs being ancient Zen as a treasure house of meditation. Now extract fragments are as follows:
Meditation, sitting meditation, silence of Enron.
On every front to knife Chang Tantan, fake spare poison is also busy busy.
I master the dipamkara, Rob had to live in disgrace.
Heart is the root, is by dust, both as microscopic trace.
Trace scaling in addition to light starts now, miscellaneous and double forgetfulness that is true.
Past dynasties to brave ODE, ballad form interpretation of Buddhist monks there. For example: good price of Zen master << enlightened brave >>, Longshan Zen master << indicated by brave >>, comfortable Zen master << three not included Chung >> and the Greek Cypriot move of Zen master << grass hut song >>, and so on.
Development is the highest achievement of the Tang dynasty monk Buddhist literature sujiang and pien-wen appeared.
Sujiang is to use a variety of artistic techniques to customs and all the propaganda article, teachings of a religious rap activities. Its originally from Buddhism in six dynasties, the “transfer” and “sing” evolved. Sujiang speakers do for monks, the so-called sujiang monk. They have a primary Department stresses, master speaker solutions, Master Yin brave in praise of Buddhist hymns, CF, etc. Sujiang certain rituals, dimension that toll collection; Mage, all shangtang rise, as Buddhist mindfulness; said to custody, opening, said solemnly, confessions, III, invited the five precepts, known as Buddha’s name. Formal lectures, first by all chant some of the original, Mage that Scripture give detailed account is explained, followed by singing these words. A finished, formula collection; so the chant is spoken by some, by the Mage Guide. So repeatedly until say, end with a solution. Sujiang DIBEN, is about Scripture. Sujiang Scriptures, is a combination of charm, rap and line. Say for simple and easy to understand classical Chinese spoken or; sang for seven, six, or five statements. Tend to have plain, broken, on its side, speech language such as yin, marks the vocal cavity singing.
Sujiang, also known as the stresses Scripture, taken all Buddhist sutras, impermanence of ideological content are Buddhism, I, bitter-free air, industry delusion, samsara, karma, decides the ring holder, to Nirvana release, and so on doctrine. Some of these works, with vivid story, narrative, portrayed, lyric and other practices, and Bo PI of the figurative, aspect Sinh said live show into esoteric teachings, often breaking through the barriers of religion, reflects the real world, with its rich life, novel and unique content, relaxation fluctuations of the plot, popular combine fascinating. Such as << Sutra the Lotus stresses Scripture >> describes the dependent master monk in the world, that is, worshipping God. Ronghua valuable of a King decided to abandon the world of the story, being various tribulations will still suffice for the supply of Cactus, pursuit of Mahayana stories to the performance of the truth. With one climax following another plot, story conversational. And if << told Vimalakirti Scripture >>, grand scale, imagination, color of great literature. For description of Kiki, extremely elaborate rendering capabilities beautifully ornate diction, rhythm rhyme with parallel prose in the United States.
Pien-wen is a new style of folk creation in the Tang dynasty, the genre is said to sing, later borrowed by the Buddhist sujiang. Variable text of “variable”, dang is means change has Sutra of this article and became “sujiang” of meaning, but Dang “variable text” into has a spot said zhihou, will not qualified perfunctory Sutra story, but unavailable people by loved of poetry combination of new human again be deposited speech, makes of popular easy solutions, so variable text is rap popular literature, is for artists singing with of DIBEN. We now see the changes are saved in Dunhuang in the rap categories of works. Such as << broken magic pien-wen >>, and << drop spot pien-wen >>, and << variable text and be implicated in their rescue mother figure and a volume sequence >>, and << eight phase change >>, characteristics of variable text, is a rap, rhyme story the combination play. Said to say propaganda and more with slang or a simple and easy to understand rhythmical prose style; sing to use the tunes according to one ‘ s own understanding to chant songs, much as rhyme brave words of seven poems. Although this system is similar to speak Scriptures, but generally not the original Scriptures, flow the last sentence is also not to force formula, not “flat”, “broken”, “side”. Second, spoken parts in an opera and sang when converting, each has the usual first-order language for prompt, such as “sth If Chen said “,” sth What words like “. If the big accounts be implicated in their room to rescue mother variable:
Guards ‘ line to seventh in the insulation, pick green streamers, Smith drums: “seventh whether Mrs qingti in isolation? “When its blue seventh intervals, Spike was 29 road, Ding on the iron berth should dare not. …… Main smell prison language, raised qingti Lady, long thin 29 nailing chain spinal Rod curl, driving out outside. Mother wants to see:
Fish like the snow sets, not knowing of the crime of the Millennium.
Tufa blood juice, big fire from mother mouth out.
Tribulus terrestris step into from the air, take break from 500 vehicles.
Lumbar can a kidney in the premises, prison guards about engine fork cover.
Mother, the former Finnish wing, Luo Weijin access account row.
That will be affected by this plough the clay, change of the Millennium the devil.
Qianhui pull the tongue in the mouth, chest hundred iron plow.
Condyle bars everywhere broken, Dr not the sword from falling.
With Empress today will know in what year?
This wave rebels that smell bitter, heart pain suspended suspended in the town of Chu.
Hell is not in place, but knowing howling for their grievances.
Isolation is not relief, anxious with the Empress died in front of prison.
This variable is very harmonious combination of prose and verse, rhyme in bulk conversion “mother” as the order the prompt. Mother tells the story of Mu Lian saving day. Three is the variable performance, or supplemented by drawings. From the large mesh be implicated in their rescue mother variable text and heading of the figure and a volume sequence. The front of the spot reduction for six, reading and drawing content in response to these remarks on the back of six paragraphs, is equipped with picture proof.
Variable text based, generally there are three classes: first Buddhist stories of religious text of the speech, such as the drop spot, and the magic variable text, breaking the big accounts be implicated in their room to rescue mother of variable text. Such change through the story of Buddhist scriptures say rap singing, publicize the basic teachings of Buddhism. But it stresses Scripture is different. They do not directly quoted Scripture, often selected sutras are the most interesting part of the story, elaborate perfunctory, rendering, and less binding expressions in Buddhist scriptures. Second, history of pien-wen, such as the Wu zixu variable text, such as the Wang Zhaojun pien-wen. They were mostly dominated by a historical figure, capture anecdotes anecdote, absorption of folklore to be rendered. Theme of the third category is folklore, such as the child to shun the filial piety, and the Prince of pien-wen Liu.
The flourishing of Buddhism, monks in the Tang dynasty transformation of video mode. Sujiang and pien-wen is the result of this change. Sujiang and pien-wen, make profound moral principles of Buddhism popular simple and easy to understand, to provide convenience for more people to accept Buddhism. The other hand, the monks of the original style of these two types of special forms, also greatly expanded the genre of literature in the Tang dynasty, to inject vitality into the literature of the Tang dynasty’s prosperity.
Monk Buddhist literature was following another literary form of the rise of Sutra literature. In the ballads of ancient monks in poetry, Ode to the brave and, not only to express the understanding of classical teachings and proven experience, but also shuhuai expressing ideal, are concerned about the hardships. Sujiang and pien-wen appeared, the esoteric Buddhist teachings became popular, spreading of Buddhism has played an important role. Monks literary supplement the inadequate content and genre of Chinese literature, is the monks made outstanding contributions to Chinese literature.
Third, the prosperity of the scholars of Buddhist literature
Ancient Chinese literati have always been a tradition of contacts with monks. Scholars and monks of a variety of reasons, when you have a successful official career as a jiaguanjin Jue Buddhist spiritual solace; has since childhood under the influence of the family and a devout Buddhist; also some offical down, depressed seek relief of and contact with Buddhism, and so on, and so on. These scholars after the contact with Buddhism, many people become devout lay. Due to the ancient Chinese literati have always been a tradition of couplets, so they are natural in poetic prose will write a lot of Buddhism-related poetry and prose, statements to the lyric records expressed firm belief.
Is in the Eastern Jin dynasty scholar of Buddhist literature works later. From then until modern times, who made great contributions in literature, and writer who had a profound impact, in varying degrees under the influence of Buddhism. Which as Xie lingyun, and Shen Yue, and Du Fu, and Bai Juyi, and Liu Zongyuan ‘s, and Su, and GONG Zizhen, and Kang Youwei, and Liang,, are is representative generation thought and academic level of outstanding character, they are wrote Xia has large Buddhist literature works, they in the some also absorption has Sutra literature and monks literature of advantages, creation has many philosophy deep was, mood beautiful of poetry, promote has Buddhist literature of large development.
In the Buddhist literature of the earliest poets is Xie lingyun (385-433), who is also the creation of Chinese literary history of the earliest poets of a large number of poems. Good Buddha in his life, Ming sequence once it’s in the shadow of the Buddha, and participate in the revision of the Nirvana Sutra, his poetry under the influence of Buddhism is deep. Xie lingyun of the Ode to the Buddha of Immeasurable Life:
By forming long Palace, road going abroad city. 48, Hong-sworn local.
Pure land how wonderful, but clear English. Folium elaeagni years wishing to send, take good morning syndrome.
The poem described the previous life as the Buddha law when a Tibetan monk, made 48 great prayers, save bitterness sentient beings. Warm and celebrate the sad wisdom of the Buddha.
Great realism and patriotic poet Du Fu in the Tang dynasty in China (712-770), is not only a farsighted outstanding poet, and Buddhism for the bright lights. He wrote many Buddhist poems, expressing anguish of life and to the Buddha’s determination. He is the Zen master of the true essence of the pass Temple wrote his worship of the Buddha. Poem cloud:
Ghost mountain high, few heavy haze a screen-like mountain peak.
Cold Springs fine stone, snow falling on long pine and sunny.
Ask to see poetry jump, weary gazes to the wine.
Failing to cut his wife, BU home get close to the peak.
Du Fu has repeatedly said that “poetry is my family”, and said that “language not astonishing vowed endless.” But in the poem, poet has put “poetry” called “jump”, you can see that, due to come to the Buddhist temple, close to the Zen Buddhist monk, he thought of significant change after it was he who had a realization. His desire to convert to Buddhism’s feelings is true, because he is experiencing too many tribulations, mind need a rest.
Song writer Su Shi and monks travelling to most closely, history spread many about this story. Poems of Su Shi also wrote a large number of rich in the philosophy of life, such as his famous, of the child by Mianchi and nostalgia:
Life everywhere know what? Be may Feihong snow mud.
Mud occasionally stay on feet, Hung fly it compound meter.
Lao Seng dead into the new Tower, bad wall have no way to see the old problems.
More rugged you know? Passers-by long trapped lame ass hiss.
The poem is son of Su Shi and the (Su zhe) poetry. Su jiayuyuannian and by Beijing with test undergo Mianchi a monastery, and Lao Seng talk to serve busy monk Huan, Su zhe as the first of the Mianchi Zhan brother questions forward to the old walls. After a few years, revisiting the old Su Shi, Lao Seng is dead, verses on the walls are bujianzongying, poet laments scattering impermanence of life, like the Swan goose leave paw prints in the snow, snow did nothing after.
Yan Yu in the Song dynasty (1197-1241) poetic theory of great influence on later generations, he wrote a monograph of the surging waves of poetry of literary theory. The surging waves of the poetry. Syndrome differentiation of poetry, he compared to a Zen master To inquire, discuss, seek religious instruction to the understanding of poetry, true and appropriate tunnel out of the close relationship between Zen and poetry. In addition, he also wrote a song with the visit to the Yi people of Ghost:
Independence and seek qinglianyu, walk through the white sand beach.
A path into the loose snow, peak evening cold.
Mountain monk to, Lin Ge for people to see.
Yin brushed coat and Bell outside the cloud people.
Wrote this poem people alone to find a temple visit monk, beach in the pan with cold light, formed as snow trail, the vast pine forest, overlapping and mountains, framed a precipitous Qing picture. Mountain monk to, so pointing Lin Ge thing, poet temples and secluded, it is poetry-pay thing. Write cloud outside the Bell at the end, curl upwards in every direction, and the picture is in harmony and could make more than not.
Scholars in the cases above cited several works of poetry, from which we can see be seen and to see the whole story. In fact, the literary genre diversity of Buddhist literature, not only poetry and prose, and drama and fiction, it is these genres and diverse, different contents of work, promoting the prosperity and flourishing of Buddhist literature.
From the rise of Buddhist literature, we can see that in the process of development and prosperity, Buddhist literature is the literary source of Chinese Buddhism, monks allowed Buddhist literature to innovation and development of literature, literary works of Buddhist literature of a large number of emerging, to flourish and prosperity of Buddhist literature has played an instrumental role. Oath of Buddhist literature was not only Buddhist teachings a powerful tool, but also an important part of Chinese literature.