This article combination China all era directory learn home of academic views and social trend, on China directory thought history of segmented for has General and expositions, pointed out that all era directory thought on later of effect and on social of role, exploration out China directory thought of law, pointed out that in future China directory thought research in the to against what, to adhere what, and came China directory thought to responsible spread academic task of views.
Directory has a long history in China, thoughts of bibliography in China is Chinese culture developed gradually and in a long time. Bibliography not only reveal and report generation status of the document, and reflect the rise and fall of the generation of cultural and academic, is a microcosm of the history the subject specialist directory, on the development of cultural and social development plays an important role. Research directory is for summarizing and inheriting traditional bibliography of the history of outstanding heritage, bibliography in opening up new areas of research, guiding role in the work of the development thought of various directories on directory, promoting the development of bibliography.
1. the “differentiation of academic exam microscopic origin”–thought of Chinese ancient bibliography
1.1 thought origin of the thoughts of bibliography in China
Bibliography of Western Han dynasty Liu Xiang, Xin is China’s founder and pioneer of the work, is China’s earliest directory of historians, its core Confucianism political thought. Social trends for the study of Confucian classics in Han dynasty, Confucian classics is to interpret and communicate knowledge of the Confucian classics, divided into many factions, various factions to abide “as teacher”, “family discipline and”, in order to gain official status, academic debate between the parties. Confucian scholars at the time gave a lot of historical document studies and theoretical preparations, factions in the process of the interpretation of the Confucian classics and in the process of finishing, edit, interpretation of Scripture is discussed views on Scripture, on evaluation of ancient figures, indicating that their academic viewpoints and political views, form their own ideology, to meet the needs of rulers ruled. Thus, while in the development of Confucianism, started to collect, collate the upsurge of books. When Cheng di, Liu Xiang, the category, the collection and arrangement are often used synonymously in the Palace, his son Liu Xin’s help, every school, “its contents, summarized its will, played and recorded”, make the level recorded–China’s first official collection of directories. Liu to the compilation of the recorded reasons, I think, due to the cultural development of the Han dynasty, making “books the plot such as Cumulus mountain”, “book.” Being light, Lu Liu Xiang ordered the Emperor edit and arrangement of the doctor’s book, and the results for the emperor to read, is the responsibility to make it so. In addition to complete this task, Liu Xiang has two purposes: first, finishing the book, resolution from academic groups and the various schools of thought, the second is the development of Confucian thought.
1.2 formation of Chinese bibliography
Under the guidance of Confucianism, Confucian classics under the influence of social trends, when Liu to finish the book, to reveal the book content, write a Syrian-registered. Syrian-registered include descriptive titles and chapters, describes collation by, describes the author’s life, thought, explains meaning of the title, ‘ writing of the reason and nature of the book, to identify the authenticity of the book, comments, ideas or the facts is, analysis of academic sources, determine the value of the book, make the first directory of the level recorded. Can be seen from the level recorded in the Liu Xiang in the comments when you explain the origin and development of academic thinking, academic standing in the position to comment on the study of classics. Liu Xiang died, Liu Xin’s child bearing fuye, continue xiaoshu industry, on the basis of the level recorded, classified, into the seven–the earliest Chinese book classification. Classification system although is by then discipline and books situation built of, but reflected alone Zun the Academy of Confucius of thought, by received literature is divided into 6 large class: first large class for “six arts slightly”, by received literature is then academic Shang and political Shang of classics; second class for “philosophers slightly”, to philosophers of learn is divided into “nine flow ten home”, including philosophy, and political, and legal, and economic, and natural science aspects of school; third class for “poems assigned slightly”, included literature works; fourth class for “book on the art of war slightly”, included military learn books; fifth class “operation number slightly” including mathematics, and astronomical, and calendar, and divination, and astrology, books; sixth class for “Fang Jilve”, received medicine and witchcraft books. The recording, and the formation of seven bibliography classification of China’s first thought, save the history books, clean up the Royal collections, analysis of academic factions, promoted the development of academic.
1.3 directory of thought in ancient China Development
Liu Xiang, Xin on our directory and create a gong, subsequently on the basis of inheritance of generations developed the thoughts of bibliography in China. Ban Gu greatly appreciated of the Eastern Han dynasty Liu Xiang directory, on the basis of the seven in writing, of the journal of the Chinese book arts, create a precedent in history record directory. Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, Xun Xuyi Liu to finishing the level recorded in the book, authored the new book, creating a four ancient Chinese books taxonomy and classification system independent of the settings in the fubitobe directory. To song Shi, Zheng Qiao’s on directory learn and has new of development, he of academic thought for “blending”, “seeking” and “innovation”, its directory learn thought main performance in pass records under of school Chou Lve under, arts text slightly under, Atlas slightly under in the, made “wishes to Ming book who, is Ming class cases”, formation full and clear books class cases. Codification of Sikuquanshu head of the Imperial Court in Qing dynasty, in the directory structure, unique achievements summary writing, document examination, document classification, history, children, set of four classification on the directory afterwards to considerable effect, provided as a convenience for the modern research of ancient literature, some scholars considered the book to read reading research portal. Zhang Xue-Cheng’s thought of Chinese ancient bibliography synthesizer, his philosophy is “not” academic point of view is “six classics are all history” he Chou Tongyi is a theory of bibliography of monographs of the school. Zhang Xuecheng’s inheriting and carrying forward Liu Xiang, Xin, bibliography of Zheng Qiao’s thought, with “differentiation of academic exam microscopic origin of” high-level overview of Chinese classical bibliography in essence, his writing class Syria and feeds, indexing, using methods such as mutual-s and don’t cut, increase the value of bibliography, promoting a theory of bibliography of research.
2. the dissemination of culture, promoting science-Chinese modern thoughts of bibliography
2.1 formation of Chinese modern thoughts of bibliography
In China’s modern history, divided into Westernization within the ruling group and the old school, two factions struggle is the struggle of the new and old theory. Social thought at the time was “Western” Westernization advocated Western learning, learning new ideas, new system in the West, publicize scientific, to achieve the purpose of the rich and strong and the people. Advocating “reform only new” translation of new representative of Wang Tao’s editing a Department containing bibliography, of the West of the writings of the book, understanding overseas of China at that time played a role of enlightenment. Later, Liang, of the Western learning textbook, classification, cataloging of bibliography are innovation, can be seen from the category settings, his thoughts of bibliography mainly propaganda of Western cultural, scientific, educational, institutional, industrial, etc. Is the directory under the influence of guidance and social trends of thought in modern times, in October 1906, first named by library public library–library of Hunan has been established. Emergence of public libraries, make cultural popularization, popularized a reality, this is the inherent power of the modernization of Chinese society, promote social progress.
2.2 development of Chinese modern thoughts of bibliography
China modern directory learn thought in must degree Shang was Western directory learn of effect, Liang of Western bibliography table under is China modern first a books classification system, on by translation Western book classification, and cataloging, to new of modern discipline category for classification standard, break traditional description method, in classification aspects: min Western, and West political, and miscellaneous class three large class, break “four min method” wing system, has natural science, and social science, and comprehensive books of young type, for modern Western books classification of entered and new of books classification of produced opened up has road. Description: description project 7: translated people, stamping date, translation Department, the number, value, understand language, to ring the number indicates the importance of the book, with guide function. Objective readers reading the description, rather than the collection, the directory idea is to appeal to Western spring tide, is the first milestone of modern Chinese book classification. Zhang Zhi-Dong of bibliography question and answer session under in China modern directory learn thought history Shang occupies place, the book for guidelines students reading doorway and authored, attention included when academic masterpieces, and foreign technology books, book Hou report don’t recorded under, head and don’t recorded tie, easy-to-digest, from can peep in Qing dynasty academic genre, has summary in Qing dynasty academic research results of value, while also visible Zhang Zhi-Dong of directory education thought and directory scholarship thought, Directory Guide thought, directory science publicity thought. Precisely because of this advocacy role for the directory, make people aware of abroad development situation, played the role of people thinking the same.
3. Exchange of information resource sharing-modern Chinese thoughts of bibliography
3.1 bibliography in foreign influence on China’s modern bibliography
Because many scholars of modern Chinese society in the world, and many scholars studying abroad or abroad to modern examination, modern Chinese thoughts of bibliography inherited directory thought in ancient China on the one hand, more important is the study of Western thoughts of bibliography, under the influence of Western bibliography of further expansion. Development of bibliography to the late 19th century and early 20th century, international directories and directory technology has made great progress, and there are many thoughts of bibliography arriving in China. United Kingdom John Calvin Ferguson, the directory noted in its introduction to the bibliography: directory of scientists should study the book release, features, publishing, printing, fonts, illustration, printing times, people, classification by size, collation, stapling, Tibetan books, revenue and where, in what directories. He noted that the objective of the book object, not the contents of the book, pointed out that Bibliography Biography book. United States Sierra, the directory is “Social Epistemology” representatives of the bibliography of his thought is “bibliographic communication” theory, which United Kingdom creation of Brooks ‘s, the directory of “knowledge-based theory” a greater reputation in the world. Computers appear in the directory is widely applied in the work of Western bibliography is more focused on working methods of the directory of research and technology, these thoughts have great influence on the modern directory.
3.2 development of Chinese modern directory
Of the important figures in the history of Chinese modern directory when is Yao Mingda, he promoted the theme directory, essential problem-solving, bent directory and find the books directory separately, according to the classification of the former, the latter by topic. In his criticism in the history of Chinese bibliography bibliography in modern validity of Western law and benefits lost ancient Chinese bibliography, advocates Western compatible, on the basis of inheritance and reference, and create a bibliography in China. Yu Jiaxi developing in its probe into the bibliography, Zhang Xue-Cheng’s view that, in the directory structure, contents, small sequence, are essential components such as Syrian-registered, the directory must have the content, to play a “differentiation of academic exam microscopic origin” role. Du dingyou, under the influence of international, with a bibliography of the social order and law group subjects, science of thin case of methyl ethyl, pay attention to bibliography retrieval. Chinese early modern bibliography is primarily the study of bibliography in foreign countries and thought of Chinese ancient bibliography summary.
People’s Republic of China after the establishment, has entered a new phase of study of bibliography, in critical inheritance and development on the basis of the Chinese classical bibliography, absorb the outstanding achievements of bibliography in foreign, constantly enriched catalog content, a great deal of progress in the study of bibliography. In the foreign directory results, first to introduce Marc Liu guojun, bibliographical studies, Bibliography object discussion, 1983 in Shenyang held a national symposium on topic of bibliography, these are on catalog research has played a catalytic role. In addition also published a number of works on bibliography, such as the classic introduction to the catalogue of the new summer, Luo Mengzhen compendium of ancient Chinese bibliography, Wang Zhongmin’s bibliography of the history of China, Ruchaud secure the bibliography of the history of China, Peng Peizhang, Qiao Haoqin, Chen Chuanfu compiled the catalog, Xie Zhuohua of the bibliography of Chinese literature and so on. The information age, international trends of knowledge economy, network economy, where under the influence of social thoughts and ideas on international directory, Zhou Wenjun “literature communication theory”, Peng Peizhang “bibliographic information theory” unique guide our working directory to the standardization, standardization, networking direction. Of directories and directory work in China for the Chinese and world culture, science, education and scientific research has made significant contributions.
4. reflections on the directory of ideological history
4.1 directory of China Law of thought
Expositions in chronological directory of Chinese thought, we find China directory has the following rules:
1. from the inside out: from the ancient thought focused only on the content of the book to the modern directory of both a book and focus on the content of the outer form of the book. 2. from partial to full: from the ancient to the classification, the light of cataloging and classification and cataloging of all-round development up to now. 3. from closed to open: from the ancient main features of the catalog are retrieved property registration developed to modern readers find books. 4. from still to motion: from ancient to modern directory within the directory can only be kept in a book-Internet communication. 5. from exclusive to shared: from the directory for the Emperor and only read in ancient times to the open communication of the whole society to the modern directory.
4.2 we oppose what? We stick to what? What do we want to build?
Research directory of China ideological history in order theory is a summary of the development directory, make a new directory, the directory with new perspectives and approaches to innovation, I think there are several areas worthy of study:
1. China bibliography must persist in carrying forward the Chinese ancient thoughts of bibliography, focusing on human factors in academic, character-focused personalized study, prosperity in China’s academic thought and academic groups, built a wide range of modern school. 2. the directories work should bear the burden of scholarly communication, academic study of transnational, international, academic by ancient differentiation of dissemination of the evolved into modern academic. 3. thinking combined with the new subject of bibliography, propose new catalog view and the branch, directory in three-dimensional direction of thinking. 4. establishment of learning’s role in promoting social progress, the Directory directory of thinking in modern application in various industries, such as using directory thinking method in software and network industries, the creation of directory search tool.
We oppose total negation directory achievements in ancient China, not to be ungrateful.
An emphasis on theory and research of the era, era of prosperity is the working directory, to China from abroad, from ancient to modern, all embody such a law, so in the past, now is no exception. The objection mentioned above, a tough, three-building point of view, are some of my superficial opinion aimed at library Associates caused more attention to the study of basic theory of bibliography.