Huizhou studies is on the development of social history and culture of Huizhou and its learning. (Note: research on Hui studies objects, academics have several claims. 1995 first issue of the journal of Chinese people’s University Cao Tiansheng is published on the article of this century Hui studies research summary, which lists several. ) Although it is currently in academics at home and abroad is very red, Huizhou culture on what is, however, what are its main content, basic issues such as what is the historical position, still lack of comprehensive and clear understanding and study. This article try to do some work in this regard, to start.
First, the definition of Huizhou culture
Study on Huizhou culture and Huizhou culture first there should be more clearly defined. This can be said that academia has no uniform, clarity and definition. As far as I understand, so-called Huizhou culture refers to the occurrence and exist in the history of Huizhou outside effects, radiation, and the resulting in typical feudal culture. Such a definition, contains at least qualify for the following four aspects:
First, we say on the Huizhou culture refers to the history of Division-wide culture of Huizhou. Its geographical range includes 6 counties of Huizhou Prefecture Department of the year, namely shexian, Xiuning, Yi County, and qimen, and Wuyuan and jixi.
Second, the Huizhou at least 5,000 or 6,000 years of history, its culture, of course, can be attributed to the broad scope of Huizhou culture. But strict and said at the typical significance of Huizhou culture concept, mainly refers to the vision of Northern Song dynasty and the three-year (1121) established the Huizhou Prefecture before the full emergence in Ming and Qing dynasties reached the peak of culture, but this early culture and its development and evolution of late has inherent relationship.
Third, the Huizhou culture not only refers to exists on the local culture of Huizhou, has also occurred from Huizhou, by domicile, including home temporary, resident foreign people in Huizhou and creating effects to radiation in the outer, outer culture, this is one of the key is to have a strong identity on Huizhou. As Zhu Xi, despite he in Fujian, main activities also in Fujian, but he ancestral home in Huizhou, Zhu Xi I on Huizhou strongly identity, has never claims “xinan Zhu Xi”,; while, Huizhou people also more is strongly to identity Zhu, depending Zhu Xi for Huizhou people of pride, in thought consciousness, and concept, and moral, and ethics, and social behavior and the activities of many aspects are consciously not consciously to deeply Zhu thought of effect, so Zhu of thought, and academic activities, may also as Huizhou culture of content.
The four, said here the “culture” should take its singular concept, refers not only to academic theory, culture and art, including business management, the patriarchal ethics writings, spiritual beliefs, customs, literature, social economics, land systems, historical figures, and so on.
Huizhou culture concept so defined, is actually the history and culture of Huizhou as an independent, pluralistic, series as a whole, both prominent geographical space and time on the process of qualifying, qualifying on the essence and content, and qualified internal including qualified integration beyond themselves, determine the object of Huizhou studies. Therefore, I agree that Hui studies (or so-called “of Huizhou”) object only qualified for the study of “is a study late feudal China, Huizhou this closed, backward, poverty in mountain areas of a rich, brilliant, unique nature, typical, five major features of Huizhou national cultural production, law of prosperity and decline of learning. “(Note: Zhao Huafu: the research object of Huizhou and significance, containing Mai yin, Liu Boshan series: the proceedings of the Huizhou studies (a), October 1994. ) The song before and after the opium war of Huizhou culture outside of the drastic cut in Huizhou studies, and irrespective of its definition here is accurate, the Huizhou culture forgets that when its only sources that have a historical basis and future evolution, it should be complete enough. History when the is not simple, arbitrary human divided after the split of the independent fragments purified into blocks. Culture of Huizhou in the late Southern Song dynasty to Qing dynasty Huizhou studies should be the main focus content or content and should not be the only content.
In fact, a stage of development of history and culture of Huizhou culture in Huizhou. Huizhou early indigenous Yue people, the oldest cultural patterns early on what the author calls the South Vietnamese culture, from ancient time when it is between spring and autumn, when the history of Huizhou culture has not yet separated from the history of the Chinese nation culture parent to take the unique character of development road. Subsequently is mountain more culture, its time for from warring States in the late to three, then of Huizhou social and culture has began from Chinese maternal of social culture development in the separation out, but but is go was a article stagnation development or even appears retrogression of road, more people “into mountain for people”, to into mountain more, “according to mountain resistance insurance, not is satisfied that King rent”, production Shang “slash and burn”, life customs Shang, “records Yong aggressive”, pancake has is deep of half original jungle social and culture of traces, that was said this a period is Huizhou history Shang of “dark” period. (Note: Ye Xianen: rural society in Huizhou in the Ming and Qing dynasties and the tenancy of the slave system, Anhui people’s publishing house, 1983, page 1th. ) Eastern Han late to song of up to more than 1000 years of period is author called xinan culture stage (jintaikang first year is ad 280 Huizhou set new Agu, so said), Huizhou of social and culture of development, in this a period, because North many soil home Hans of immigrants and brings in population, and economic, and culture Shang of impact, and collision and the last of integration, get strides and fast progressive, feudal of process get implementation, to song Shi, more people has and moved and to of North Han fusion, Huizhou people has is very mature of “feudal people”; Huizhou people more to less of contradictions has highlight, by Huizhou local to outside of Huizhou history Shang second times immigrants–negative immigrants of process has began, it main is through Imperial and business two article road implementation; Huizhou heavy Confucianism, and heavy text, and heavy taught of atmosphere has formation, “Huang Chao of mess, Zhongyuan dressed avoidance uti possidetis Yu this, Hou or to or left, vulgar Yi to elegant, Song Xing is famous official coming forth. “(Note: Chun Hee Russell: the xinan records volume one. ) “Xinan since after the move to the South, people, literature, and that day. For the time being, since Yap, fields and even the far Mountain Valley, where residents, all have to learn, there are divisions and a history of the book of Tibetan. …… The Quartet that ‘ Southeast Zou LU ‘. “(Note: @ ① Zhao: the shangshan College field in mind. ) And it is precisely in this period, Huizhou is as “the Cheng-Zhu’s point shenque”, is the birthplace of Neo-Confucianism, (Note: see the flop: of the Cheng-Zhu’s Neo-Confucian origin, of the exploration and contending, issue 2000. ) And Cheng Zhu neo-science of zhuzi in particular is rational kernel of Huizhou culture. Therefore, we cannot cut study of Huizhou culture, history and culture of Huizhou culture in Huizhou in just one stage in the long course of development, it is bred and developed directly from us culture, which is the basic source of the former. (Note: on the historical stages of social and cultural development of Huizhou, can see the flop: the rise of Huizhou culture–comment on cultural studies, the Huizhou social science, 1989. )
Second, the basic content of Huizhou culture
After the rise of Huizhou culture in Southern Song dynasty, by the time of development, to the Ming and Qing dynasties, whose development has been achieved fully. System integrity and impressive features distinctive, its brilliance, abundance, at least:
First, after the Southern Song dynasty, is almost in all areas of the culture of Huizhou people with outstanding contributions in many aspects of the culture has a profound creativity and development, and developed their own style and characteristic of the genre. Famous merchants such as business management (later mentioned again). Xinan neo on the philosophy, or science of zhuzi, its mountain progenitor that Zhu Xi himself, main representative also Wuyuan Cheng Xun, Cheng Yongqi of Xiuning, Wang Shen and Cheng Dachang, long Yuan Liou, particularly “in the Ming and Qing dynasties, science of zhuzi world and stresses of cooked, said details, keep them solid, you pushed us to so. “(Note: the light of the Xiuning County records. ) Textual research on Hui Pu school that Jiang wearing Pu school (Jiang Yong Jiang, people in Wuyuan; Dai Zhen, tunxi people), in it as a school of Qianlong and Jiaqing of Wan faction, great impact, Qing Jiang Fan, said: “three xingyuwu of Hui, Jiang Yong, Dai Zhen continues onwards She, since then sinology Changming, gracious manner heavy haze, fleeting Fudan. “(Note: Qing Jiang Fan: the apprentice in Chinese studies in mind. ) Painting Xin, Jiang Tao, shexian, (that is, jianjiang) is considered its Patriarch, Huang Binhong She people in modern times. According to some statistics, from Wanli of the Ming dynasty to the Qing emperor Qianlong of less than 200 years, is a total of Huizhou Xin great artist of more than 60 people, these masters, all levels, according to the evaluation of Huang bin, when “in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces”, think of impact. (Note: Li Ming: the discussion on Xin, of the Anhui Museum, 4th. ) Emblem on the seal carving, it is flourishing in Ming and Qing dynasties, famous representative He Zhen Huang Shiling. According to Feng Chenghui codification of the printing knowledge in mind, only generation of Ming dynasty, seal of the country more than 190 people, shexian, Huizhou, Xiuning both accounted for only 35 people, more in the Qing dynasty. (Note: Zheng Qing Earth: He Zhen and emblem of the school of seal cutting, the inaugural issue of the series of Huizhou. ) Anhui engraving on the block, it started in the Southern Song dynasty, in Ming and Qing dynasties, occupies an important position in the history of engraving books in China. In the Ming and Qing dynasties “people will find She” (Note: Jing of the Huizhou Prefecture records. ) Emblem carved like constant (State), the USSR (States) as famous for the then three. Print logo on prints, it is unique in the history of Chinese art. Wanli of the Ming dynasty “Don ‘ t expect the play-free”, “inevitable seeking She carved figure, She first push Wong” saying. According to statistics, from the beginning of Wanli of the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty more than 100 years, only a kind of Dragon, shexian, village by village surnamed WONG to print industry reached more than 100 people. (Note: Zhou Wu: the emblem of the essays in the history of printmaking, Anhui people’s publishing house, 1983. ) Of Anhui Opera in the Opera, which is the predecessor of Peking Opera, during the reign of Qing dynasty, there were “four emblem in Beijing”, very famous at the time. The Daoguang, Beijing is “Opera dramas, and Hui”. (Note: the light of the trivial book dream China. ) Anhui construction on the building, for a unique in the history of Chinese architecture. Medicine, a very famous of xinan medicine, for the important part of the academic system in China. According to statistics, from the Eastern Jin dynasty to the Qing dynasty, only have historical data available in Huizhou famous doctors of 668 people, s 225 people wrote 461, Ming and Qing dynasties are famous physicians of which 605 people, 245 were 445 medical writing, and left a glorious page in the history of Chinese medicine. (Note: Li Jiren, Hu Jian Pei: of the xinan medical records, Anhui science and technology press, 1990. ) Chess Shang, xinan go since ancient times so far on master coming forth, Ming and Qing dynasties Shi go territories of xinan sent was hailed as is and “Yongjia sent” and “metropolitan sent” as famous of three large sent one, which shexian people Cheng Ruliang is was Wang Shizhen in Yi aims under a book in the column four a “Ming dynasty first products” of first people; and shexian people Cheng Lanru is was called is and Fan Xiping, and Shi Dingan, and Liang Weijin as famous of Morikiyo four national champion; (Note: Wu Xiaoting: Ming and Qing Dynasties period go “xinan sent” study on under, emblem learn communications under total 17th, and 18 period. ) Post-contemporary shexian, national champion of a famous person ever watchful and health, Hsu early brothers. Cockroach is the more traditional process of name of Huizhou to the outside, covering various areas. Treasure art, Huizhou occupies two Po, is inkstick produced at Huizhou of Anhui Province, considered the best of its kind, and She inkstone, Yuan zhiqian also including Cheng heart church paper, and Wang Boli pen; diet cooking Shang, has famous of emblem dishes, it featured material, heavy color, and heavy oil, and heavy fire Gong, for national eight large cuisine one; carving technology Shang, except above prints substandard, also has famous of emblem sent brick carving, woodcarving, and stone, and said “Huizhou three carved”. In addition, Anhui penjing, Hui-paint and a variety of bamboo and wooden knitting technology and so on. These are all important elements of Huizhou culture and Chinese cultural essence of development in these areas has been dominated for decades, hundreds of even thousands of years.
Second, in some areas of cultural development, Huizhou probably has not yet formed its own factions, but there have been a number of leading academics and outstanding figures. Such as natural sciences sector, Huizhou is the stars brilliant. Mathematics Shang has mathematics master tunxi people Cheng large bit (1533-1606), he s has algorithm Commission were under 14 volume, maximum contribution is will mathematics from chips remember number development for Abacus count, determine has Pearl disc type operations and perfect has Pearl disc mnemonics, in at home and abroad effect great; physics Shang, has physicist shexian people Zheng Fuguang (1780-about 1862 years), he proficient in mathematics, and physical and machinery manufacturing, especially in optical Shang contribution maximum, s has mirror mirror cold nerd under five volume, spot on the optical principle and optical instrument manufacturing, is China then most main of part optical works and so on, and was said, part Huizhou natural science history is a Department Anhui natural science history. (Note: Zhang Binglun: scientific development of Anhui in the period of the Ming and Qing dynasties and its reason analysis of, the series of Huizhou, inaugural issue, 1985. ) Poems in Huizhou literature, although it is difficult to conclude that it’s a genre exists, but at least there is a large group. Zhu Xi himself was a great poet, writer, his poetry in the song is the first, (Note: Hu Ying-lin: the poem mitoji · hybrid volume five of the series. ) Handed down of on at least has more than 1200 yushou; qimen people party back (1227-1307) of Word wind, and thought and Xin Qiji similar; Ming shexian people Wang Daokun (1525-1593) not only official home xianwei, and its literature attainments quite deep, its literature was hailed as is Ming interim literature retro sent “Hou five child” in the of important representative character one; especially in Pouilly poems Shang, Wang Shi had remember: “on the Ming Pouilly poems, very push Wu Fei bear, and Cheng Mengyang, at home all smell two Mr are xinan production also. “(Note: the xinan Pouilly the second poem, fair copy, hiding in qimen County Museum. ) Have a clear generation more than 270 years, Huizhou can claim to have ‘ at least there are more than 200 words first. In other aspects, Marx in capital under in the by mentioned of only of Chinese is shexian people Wang Maoyin (1798-1865), he is China history Shang one famous of financial and economic thought history expert; Xiuning people Zhu Sheng (1299-1370) not only is one famous of classics home, also is one famous of political strategy thought home, 1337 he had advice Zhu Yuanzhang “high built wall, wide product grain, sustained King”, on Ming dynasty of established up has important role; Yixian County people Yu Zhengxie (1775-1840) is Qing famous of classics home and history home; Opera home has accounts even play combination who qimen people Zheng Zhizhen (1518-1595), has Ming dynasty famous opera home Xiuning people Wang Tingne (1573-1619), especially Wang Tingne, its not only works blocheer all home of long, unique, while, he also is one go theorists, s has sat implicit elderly Yi mitoji under a volume and sat stability implicit Mr fine set shortcuts chess manual under 5 volume; Linguistics territories, except Zhu Xi, and Jiang Yong, and Dai Zhen, Shuo Confucianism members more has research outside , Not by name persons of research also quite in-depth, as in Huizhou dialect research Shang, Anhui University emblem learn Research Center Special Collections room “Hakuzan bookstore” (Note: author 2000 yiqian in Huangshan city work during, had in Huizhou rescue and collection a has more than 11,000 yufen (Department) Huizhou instruments original, on May 19, 2001 official donated to Anhui University, for this, Anhui University ad hoc “Hakuzan bookstore” to Tibetan of. ) Within on collection has by Wuyuan people Hu Zhaoqian copied, Wuyuan people Jiang Xianglan authored of 构词成分。 North 12 are dongshanxiang tone Word class under manuscripts upper and lower two book and Hu Zhaoqian since s Hugh Yap brogue under manuscript upper and lower two book (Note: this four book manuscripts book author visit was Wuyuan same households people, another has Hu Zhaoqian shouchao as recorded home take under, and sound of spectrum under, and received rent account this,. ), Classification detail, tune, Visible Foundation of the popular Linguistics; origin of Huizhou in the field of education is long, and the harmonizing of Zhu Xi (1298-1358), Zhao @ ① (1319-1369), Wang Kekuan (1304-1372) are famous educationist in Huizhou, shexian, contemporary educators more great people person Tao xingzhi (1891-1946), jixi people Hu Shi (1891-1962) is a contemporary cultural giant. They have made outstanding contributions to the development of Chinese culture, its academic thought, not only is the important content of Huizhou culture, are also important elements of Chinese culture and world culture.
Third, in addition to the above two things, Huizhou culture also includes the contents of the above factors and geographical factors, Huizhou derivative of nature and objective of the community formed by some of the unique cultural phenomenon. Claims to be a contract of Huizhou society, still intact to preserve civil contract of at least hundreds of thousands of copies (Note: see the flop: the retention and rescue of Huizhou documents, theory of November 11, 2001 edition of the Guangming daily. ) Of the early Song dynasty, Ming and Qing dynasties, with as far as I can see until late June, 1955 and 1985, (Note: see the flop: “Hakuzan House” a preliminary study on the reservoir of Huizhou documents classification and (I), of the Hui studies, 2000 volume, Anhui University Press, 2001. ) Content involving mountain pond on the sale of housing, the land tenancy in the employment relationship, adoptive Uxorilocal marriage relations, commercial capital raising, litigation documents, conventions, private lending, lot of clan books, notes, books, etc, are not only plentiful, of long duration, but also a system. Such contractual social phenomenon in Huizhou is most typical, it revealed a deep rational ingredient of social and interpersonal relationships in Huizhou. Again such as the patriarchal clan culture and system of Huizhou, its typical and unique is also very significant. Huizhou come from immigrants, poly family home, Xiuning people Zhao Jishi had: “xinan there are dozens of different customs than his Yap: the mass graves of the Millennium, a p fixed æ u@ ②; thousands of Ding family, perhaps, gracious pedigree, no turbulent. Master and servant, though dozens of the world is not modified, ganef can’t establishments here. “(Note: Zhao Jishi: the mail sent to the Park, volume one or two. ) The King family, enhanced spectrum, is called: “Lady mo of life of the three cardinal guides and the five constant virtues as specified in the feudal ethical code, Spy is the spectrum of the three cardinal guides and the five constant virtues as specified in the feudal ethical code. “” Don’t fix spectra of three generations, for the unfilial “(Note: the qimen of the Wuxi Chen lineage, Tibetan Anhui University” Hakuzan House “. ), And so on. There is also economic and social structures and land tenancy in Huizhou Huizhou human consciousness and servant relationship, values, customs and beliefs of people in Huizhou, phenomenon, phenomena of shed people in Huizhou in Huizhou dialect, these are unique or very typical, very characteristic of Huizhou cultural phenomena, are also important elements of Huizhou culture.
Third, the cause of prosperity of Huizhou culture
Huizhou culture can be so prosperous that year, and hundreds of years, not cause of failure is inherent and Basic.
First is the economic foundation, this is the merchants. Merchants is merchants of Hui nationality people, it was forced out in the same year. Wanshan Plexus in Huizhou, a field of eight mountains and a water and lean less hilly fields, “that the rich are no arable fields”, “lean, produced to thin, sth He County agricultural times, and the improper in its half. Overhand high water, so the harvest little, mostly in the age of one, one cannot support. “(Note: Gu Yanwu: of the Lee County country in the world of books. ) Never getting to food self-sufficiency, food needed “back the Quartet”. In particular to after Tang and Song dynasty, “Huang Chao chaos” and “jingkang” peak of Huizhou immigrants twice in a row, Huizhou’s population increased in current situation of cultivated land in Huizhou and productivity levels nearly saturated, so less people living space, Hui people are “non-operational square, no treatment of health policy”. (Note: Xu Chengyao: the She busy TAM volume 28. ) And “life in agriculture to the people of the world, life to the Hui people in the business. “(Note: the journal of volume eight of Huizhou in the reign of the House. ) Is the so-called “past lives don’t fix, born in Huizhou, 12 or 13 years old, out of a lost”, was at the time of the Southern Song dynasty of Hui merchants begin to form. Course, emblem commercial of formation also inherent to and Huizhou local mountain economic structure and to xinanjiang mainly River of aspect facilitate river system about, mountain economic structure itself of Ying deficiency moved supplement of not balance sexual, inherent demand to circulation and Exchange to get balance, meet emblem people of basic demand; developed of river system and brings transport of facilitate, makes is located in the remote wild mountain of Huizhou of circulation to most economic of implementation. (Note: see the flop: an introduction to the merchants, literature and history Committee of the CPPCC in Huangshan city series: the ancient merchants of Huangshan Saqi books, 1999. ) But the early merchants is a simple mountain is rich in tea in Huizhou, secondary production of wood, clay and paint, ink, paper and inkstone, Huizhou required in exchange for grain and cloth, salt, such as lack of complementary trade surplus. Ming merchants before receiving greater development in the future, no longer limited to center of Huizhou in trafficking human trafficking, but face the nation, operating scale is also growing, economic way to mature to become China’s business sector a strong. When the Qing dynasty, you jumped to in ten Chinese merchant rankings help, especially salt merchants, wood, tea merchants, pawn four as the most prosperous. Footprint throughout the country, travel across overseas; saying “drill tiandong Ting Hui”, great impact, as well as “no can’t emblem town” of proverbs. Judging from the merchants characteristics of Jia Dao, Huizhou merchants as a China scholar at that time, its “merchants who like Confucianism”, focusing on Jia Ru combining, combination of Jia Shi, strengthen Zong Yi, the importance of education, and abide by Jia Dao, profit heavily. “Millions of merchants ‘, 200,000 or 300,000 by countless Jia. “By earned of money, a is reproduction; II is lane text report ya, host nourishing scribes, built Hall, and Office text will, and Hing poetry society, and storage troupe, and printing books, and collection history, and built Garden,; three is development education, to” rich and taught not sustained, eaters product money wealth He Yi between “(Note: shexian new Museum Acinetobacter baumannii s save Church genealogy under volume II. ) Ideology, extended Division class children, strengthening families training, transporting gold funding, buy tianheyitian, family learning, building College, owned house, County; four is the hometown of input, build bridges and repair roads, construction of civil engineering, the author spectrum. This objective for the development of Huizhou culture provides a strong economic support.
Second, is the foundation of Huizhou style of writing and education. History of Huizhou style prosperity, education developed, Government House of counties, colleges, community learning, private schools, would be extremely prosperous. College, according to some statistics, since the Song dynasty to Qing dynasty, Huizhou, essential care, six counties to build College Bookstore, books by the Church and so a total of more than 260, including 11 in the Song dynasty, Yuan dynasty 21 and the rest are in Ming and Qing dynasties, (Note: Liu Bingzheng: brief description of the evolution of the Academy in Huizhou, proceedings of the Huizhou studies (a). ), Hongwu eight years (1357) first month summons State social science in the world, “deferred divisions between Confucianism and Taoism, teach the children of civil. “Be 462 years six counties in Huizhou social science, (Note: of the Huizhou education in mind, containing the Hui studies newsletter di13-14qi supplement. ) When Emperor Kangxi, amounted to 562. (Note: the journal of volume seven of Huizhou in the reign of the House. ) Private schools are everywhere. “Distant mountain valley, where residents, all school teachers. “” Village of ten households, waste-free reading “, is prosperity of Huizhou style portrayal. Because education developed, talent is coming forth. According to Mr Ye Xianen statistics, jinshi, only domicile in Huizhou, 624 in the Song dynasty, 392 in the Ming dynasty (1.55% of total national scholars in the Ming dynasty), 226 in the Qing dynasty (0.86% of total national scholars), and (Note: Ye Xianen: rural society in Huizhou in the Ming and Qing dynasties and the tenancy of the slave system, 192th page. ) Plus home temporary field, is amazing. Many scholar, as the only Qing dynasty, domicile plus home temporary total 17 people, per cent of the total number of national 14.9%, (Note: see Wu Jianhua: of the Huizhou in the Qing dynasty scholar, the Huizhou newsletter, di13-14qi supplement. ), Second only to the House of Suzhou, the country ranked second. Talent coming forth, so that the history of Huizhou “sokolinkon House of the three, four in ten Imperial Academy”, “brothers and nine scholars, four-Minister, a list of 19 scholars”, “one with the County is $” saying. Advanced education, is a hotbed of prosperity of Huizhou culture.
Third, is a neo impact. Huizhou is called “Southeast Zou Lu” is “in the Cheng-Zhu’s point shenque” birthplace of Neo-Confucianism. The Cheng Zhu Jue Li Zhi recorded: “the Cheng-Zhu School of Daming in the world, Gong Mo buchongsi Cheng Zhusan master of science in the world. Nairuosan worship of master Zhao Xiang, Wu She alone. …… Zhu Xue Cheng, since by the Cheng brothers and Zhu, precedent is represented by yellow Pier She migration, it said in the Cheng-Zhu’s point shenque. “” Cheng Zhusan teacher, min 构词成分。 people, a Zhongshan migration from Los, precedent, She Wong Pier. “(Note: Yongzheng to carve the Cheng Zhu Jue Li Zhi · sequence, Tibetan Museum of Huangshan city. ) Especially of Zhu Xi’s thought, influence on Huizhou to the deep. Tomb of Zhu Xi on two occasions back to Anhui Province, Kok lectures shoutu, on the height of at least 12 people. In Huizhou, Zhu Zhu Shi and his last name for it, source, as a spectral sequence, problems in the examination Board, leaving a poem, and so on, mark very public, lot of ink, such as the author just favorite piece of Zhu Xi wrote the “yuanfeiyuyue” of inscriptions, too precious. Huizhou is “first master Zhu Xi as a county”, “I xinan Zhu sangzi State should read the book of Zhu Xi, and Zhu Xi taught, Bing Zhu, the hearsay of Zou Lu ruosun. “(Note: Xiuning mingzhou Wu code Qing · sequence. ) Merchants established Hall of Sung worship throughout the country such as Zhu Xi. Science of zhuzi Huizhou into Shi, schooling, into not only deeply influence of Jia who have in-depth awareness of the masses, constitute Confucianism and thus compatible with Buddhism and Taoism in Huizhou area of heavy precipitation, degree of feudal in Huizhou is very heavy. These internal deep left and right and guide the development of Huizhou culture, making the science of zhuzi a powerful ideological prop on Huizhou culture development, rational kernel constituting the Huizhou culture.
Its four, and except above three point outside, Huizhou culture by can highlight personality and features of local, also is first, within in accept was Huizhou unique of geographical, and landscape resources situation of Board limited and effect; second, inherent profound to accept was Huizhou immigrants social and culture nature of decided and effect; third, synchronization occurred interference to, and two-way role to accept Huizhou culture itself exists and development process of decided and effect, which exists GEO and geographic culture decisive, and culture occurred of boundary conditions decided sexual and culture overall system internal of collaborative effect sexual, all aspects decided factors.
Four, the historical status of Huizhou culture
Is late in the development of the feudal society of China to Huizhou culture, feudal regime, thought, and culture is fully formed and obtain high degree of centralization and strengthened integration periods of great prosperity of regional culture, therefore, it is as a typical Chinese feudal culture, nature of it: feudality. As Huizhou Culture Foundation one of emblem commercial is a typical of China feudal commercial help, Jia Ru combination, and Jia Shi combination, and heavy parents Yi, and heavy neighbourhood, are is its feudality of specific performance; ancient Huizhou education more is a feudal education, its textbook of selected, and tutorial of arrangements, and Professor of purpose, all inherent reflected China feudal society of content and requirements; more main of is, as Huizhou culture guiding ideology of Cheng Zhu neo, is China feudal society of official philosophy, its all are is in maintenance and defence Yu China feudal society. Also because of the feudality of Huizhou culture essence, therefore, when the pace of development of history to modern times, with the end of feudal China, Huizhou culture integration in a recession, with extinction is inevitable. Huizhou culture in Qing dynasty after the recession, brilliant belong to the past.
However, keep the prosperity of Huizhou culture for hundreds of years, in the history of the Chinese culture is unique, important historical status. 5,000 years traditional of Chinese culture can said is habit of China feudal culture, and China feudal society in entered has song yihou, began in late, Huizhou culture is in this a period full rise and prosperity, it of comprehensive, and rich sexual, and brilliant sexual makes of became China late feudal society culture development of typical projection; while and because Huizhou culture of unique sexual, and typical, and national effect sexual, and makes of became China late feudal society culture development of typical microcosm, thus determine has it typical representative and specimens of status. Basic clues of Chinese feudal ideology of philosophy and cultural development and in advanced Huizhou philosophy and consciousness development after basic clues the inner correspondence can be well illustrated.
Philosophy of Chinese feudal ideology, culture has been with Confucian culture as the main body, and after several stages of development of Confucian culture. Was originally represented by the thought of Confucius and Mencius ‘ classic stage, followed by establishment of Dong Zhongshu’s “destiny on the” stages of Confucianism. The song, due to the progress of the society, in particular the “Buddhist and Chinese philosophy is back for a moment the right to; so solid and many of them unique to here. Song Xuexing, is a virtue, and Buddhist anti-Yan “. (Note: Lv Si: article II of the elements of psychology, of the pathological stages. ) The idea of God increasingly shows its lack of form of Confucianism, so the rise of the neo, theory, philosophy of Confucianism, so as to establish more systematic, rigorous system, Cheng hao, Cheng Yi is the Neo-Confucian system of formation, Zhu Xi is a synthesizer, constitute a third stage in the development of Confucian culture. Neo-Confucian culture after the recession, to the Ming and Qing dynasties, enlightenment, Anti-Neo-Confucian thought appears, formed the fourth stage of the development of Confucian culture. The stage for hundreds of years, which is divided into two periods. During the first period was the early enlightenment, which is characterized by wearing coat anti-feudal culture, anti-feudal Confucianism; second period was the “u” during the new culture movement, which is characterized by explicit “down-hole shop” accepted science and democracy, promote new culture.
These basic clues from pathological stage and forged indissoluble bond of Huizhou. First is neo, and not said Huizhou is II Cheng and Zhu of ancestral home to, Huizhou people research neo, and formation xinan neo school, to maintenance, and inherited, and Everbright Zhu of learn for purposes, “strict respect road, fine Wu teacher education”, writings very feng, effect very large, representative has Zhu neo of authentic, alone collar dominated the, is as Cheng Zhu neo of typical projection more is as has typical microcosm. Followed in the early period of the Enlightenment, people wearing coat anti-neo-feudal culture of Huizhou, anti-feudal is best in the country. Dai Zhen’s flag on one side of the early enlightenment is recognized around the world. Duan commented: theory of the day “and neo-fire”, “crazy break the Taiji in Confucian family. “(Note: Duan: the Scripture floor, set volume VII. ) Of Liang Qi-chao, said: “trying to use ‘ philosophy of emotions ‘ acting philosophy, theory of this point, is the absolutely the essence of the ideological trend of European Renaissance and the like. “(Note: Liang Qi-Chao: an introduction to the Qing dynasty. ) That this is “for 800 years one of the sasangge revolution” is “by the year 2000 without reference”. (Note: Liang Qi-Chao: the Terry daidone of the origin of the original library. ) Sun Shuping is explicitly pointed out: “Dai Zhen was ‘ May Fourth ‘ movement previously fierce criticism of the first people on the anthropophagi. “(Note: Sun Shuping: the history of Chinese philosophy. ) Third, as a “u” new culture movement period, people of Huizhou is a standard-bearer of Hu. With more than more than 30 PhD, Hu Shi of the Huizhou culture was brought up to accept, in this campaign, literary improvement proposed, against eight-legged essay statement; advocate with combination of Chinese and Western culture, advocated acceptance of Western civilization; introduction of pragmatism, promote “bold assumptions, carefully proof” and so on, and having these ideas and the practice at the time, and were deeply affected a whole generation of people, even generations. Hu Shi is recognized around the world “Wusi” movement of one of the most important and the most prominent representative. Visible, song of Huizhou’s academic thought in philosophy after development is complete, to embody and reflect the typical advanced philosophical ideology of feudal society in China: basic clues and contents.
Moreover, other content and the structure of social life in Huizhou to Huizhou culture and are as such in their respective fields become late feudal China cultural morphology in typical specimens of projection and reflected in these areas. For example, merchants, it is, as the feudal society of China business development and merchants in the late form of a typical, “merchants who like Confucianism”, with Jia Shi, strengthen Zong Yi, characteristics of the importance of education; taken away and selling, hoarding, money lenders, the monopoly business way; good justice rise and fall, the right of access to, and so on, all of which revealed that ten Chinese merchant at the time of the General. Again, late Chinese feudal society relationships are scrupulously abide by the ethical, social structure of Cheng-Zhu neo-enlightenment, loyalty, deep mourning, heavy, heavy, and so on, and if this is the most typical to Huizhou and remarkable. A case study of Huizhou women only, by Cheng Yi “starved minimal thing, be disloyal matter greatly” didactic effects, Huizhou women dying Neo-Confucian way of national s, Zhao Jishi Xiuning people have pointed out: “xinan woman who died for protecting her chastity at most, one and a half counties when his province. “(Note: Zhao Jishi: the mail sent to the Park. ) Republic amendment of She County records under has 16 this, which heroic women pass under on has 4 large this; in Huizhou for woman who died for protecting her chastity women set of Memorial is up to of, from a square a table to a square several table or even a square tens of table are with, as during Ogata 31 years, Huizhou house built has a seat “filial piety woman who died for protecting her chastity square”, had concentrated recognition full House filial piety chastity strong female up more than 65,000 over people, called a odd. It can be said that in Huizhou was most affected by the feudal ethics education in China, the most deeply affected and toxicity, embody the most typical regions of feudal Confucianism ethics.
Because of Huizhou society and culture is advanced and typical representative specimens of Chinese feudal society and culture, so this also determines that it is in social and cultural history of the Chinese nation has a unique and important position, their research also has a great academic value and significance. (Note: see the flop: the academic significance of study on Huizhou culture, of the Xinhua wenzhai, 1998. )
③ the capital treatment of mirror volume 56.