Government integrity is one of the most important in all honesty, it throughout the entire Government and public interactive activities, directly or indirectly affect citizens ‘ integrity, honesty and the construction of democratic politics in the market. To this end, we must seriously explore the root causes of the lack of credit of the Government, seeking to control the fundamental way to discredit the Government. There are many reasons of honesty of the Government, including the inertial effects of the traditional administration models, weak awareness of Government civil servants, of Government implicit in the Act of self-interest, government administrative norms of honesty system is not sound. Currently, in addition to vigorously promote the construction of social credit system, Government good faith construction of mechanism should be top of the real issue. As the Government, should lead to set an example, committed to the construction of their own credit.
Since in the 1980 of the 20th century, with the gradual improvement of China’s socialist market economic system and democratic politics to push when good faith-the maintenance of social order in the basic ethical and political values, increasingly people in profound reflection on the theory and reality. Over the years, known as traditional Chinese virtues of honesty, was to maintain the core values of social structure as a whole. In the history of the ancient Chinese ethics and Confucian ethic issues of most importance to the study of Confucian ethics, honesty and occupies a very important position, “people without faith is not vertical, industry hard, political Folium elaeagni-free”, is considered a foundation of honesty, leader of the country, the foundation of, State of this, the country.
First, the importance of the construction of Government credit
“Building honest Government” in modern Government has occupied an important voice in the reform. There is a consensus that in reality, integrity is the example of the Government, corporate integrity is key, personal integrity is the Foundation. Throughout the construction of social credit system, “starting on” than “from my start” is more important. So what is “good faith”, what “Government integrity?” in academia is a matter of opinion, no consensus. Shallow words, integrity means honesty, compliance, and thus to obtain the trust of others. Its core meaning is: a person with agents contained in the character or requested on trust, trust and goodwill with caution, Frank’s character. Trick to being a good faith behavior becomes more and more could be expected of the future determine, thus avoiding or reducing risks. Government of good faith on the basis of consensus, the Government and people have a contractual relationship, to fulfil the commitments made on the contract. From the perspective of contract theory, people will exercise executive power delegated to the Government, the Government obtained public powers conferred upon it by the people at the same time, it must bear the corresponding duties and obligations. Specific,, it main including two aspects: while is means Government (honesty party) is has worth public (trust party) trust of factors (including honest, and and trustworthy of good character, Government personality aspects of factors) and fulfil contract of ability in objective Shang can for trust party by trust of degree, is from trust party of evaluation; on the is means Government on trust party of sense and actually on public of looks forward to and trust of response. Government credit stems from political principal-agent relationship between the Government and the public, the core part of that public confidence in the Government and the Government on the integrity of the public. Government administrative personnel pursuant to delegate contract get corresponding of remuneration (wage, and bonus), and honors, interests thus must fulfil corresponding of functions, but this contract different Yu economic contract, economic contract of “marked of” is substances form of merchandise, and Government contract of “marked of” both substances aspects of, and as provides public facilities, and maintenance peace and security, and developed legal and regulations,, and has ethics level of, as justice, and fair, and just, and democratic, and tolerance, and responsibility,, content very widely . So, the Government should perform their duties successfully, you must rely on “honesty”, that is loyalty to the people and responsible. From the perspective of Government assume the duties of Government integrity involves political, economic, cultural and other livelihood issues, is the maximum of the community’s good faith, closely related to the interests of the people, closely related to the rise and fall of the country.
Second, the Government’s lack of credibility reasons
There are many reasons of honesty of the Government, has a history of influence, has practical reasons, a subjective factor, there are objective factors.
(A) the inertial effect of traditional administrative model.
The modernization of our country is in with thousand years of feudal culture started in the background, in which traditional mode of Administration is deeply rooted, a proper climate may be regenerated. Its pattern is characterized by: Imperial supremacy of feudal absolutism, its structure is the membership type of portrait, attached at various levels from the bottom up, highly concentrated, so internal organizations, individuals in your organization to lose proper autonomy and relative independence, formed an emperor living in the supremacy of vertex positions “morality ruling” pyramid. Its management is a layer of pipe layer level tube level, from the Han dynasty “black hundred, and Confucianism” begin, inertia of a down. The feudal rule of tradition, is the phase of modernization and social deviation, is to hinder the building of Socialist democracy, but its influence was very great inertia. In today’s fast forward the socialist modernization,
This traditional model of the rule is still a certain status. Some government officials maintain that the “official standard” system, because it contributes to the play of their authority, within the scope of their jurisdiction, you can do whatever they want. Thousands of years passed down this “official standard” system, also at the same time reinforced the slavish consciousness and habit of blindly following authority, leading to people greatly dependent on the Government.
(B) weak awareness of modern government civil service integrity.
Government was one of the root causes of the Government civil service honesty “contract integrity” concept is not strong. Helm of the national executive power in the hands, you should have a responsibility, should also bear the consequences of the acts. When people gave you the duties, formed a contractual relationship, that is, principal (public) entrusted the Government to exercise administrative powers, as the acting party (Government) should give them the necessary public goods (national defence, public order, public welfare, justice, and so on), if the agent responsibility to fulfil better, their officials should be given their due wages, remuneration, honor, and so on. If the Government cannot provide the principal and legitimate demands, unable to respond to public expectations and trust agent should be the appropriate treatment, the existence of the principal and the agent is also worth considering . This relationship must be supported by good faith. And good faith between man and man behind the principle of equality. But the great number of civil servants without such honesty, never to assume work should also pledge to the people, also have to assume responsibility for the breach of.
(C) the Government’s implicit in the Act of selfishness.
As Engels said: like other members, officials will also be driven by self-interest. As a Government of “economic man”, there is awareness of self-interest, idea and pursuit of the interests of maximizing, not surprisingly, not too much. The point is, “Lee” what is the specific meaning. Human needs are many, have a particular importance on spiritual needs, to meet the spiritual needs for fun. Can make you happy, is a kind of self-interest. According to the school of public choice theory, “helpfulness” also contains a self-interest, because helping people, themselves get happy, get spiritual interests. So if a government agency, or can the well-being of the masses in the heart of the civil service, and can use their wisdom to the people of good, which has won the hearts, received the award, won the honor, has been promoted, this is a beneficial and selfish things. But here said the self-interest is obviously completely different nature, is an “implicit” self-interest, exclusively for the purpose of obtaining material benefits and enjoy.
(D) the Government administrative norms of honesty system is not sound.
China has successively promulgated a series of economic laws and regulations, initially forming the necessary credit system of laws and regulations. Reception systems, financial systems, security systems, contract law, unfair competition law, consumer protection law, the integrity mechanism has coercive power and moral binding, maintaining the normal market order, reducing the credit risk in the transaction, and the expected increase may be of interest. But on the whole, these laws and regulations are mainly focused on enterprise as the representative of the business market, used to regulate the Government and its administrative credit laws and regulations are basically in a blank State. Although the Government has done a lot of work on construction of credit system, but on the whole, mostly stop-gap move, not specific, not detailed, very far away from the perfect operating system.
Third, the Government good faith construction of approaches
China has always pursued the honest character, “honesty as root, for this”, it is more important than material resources, human resources and valuable community resources. Credibility but has now become China’s market economy “septic” as the major risks of further economic development in China. While the Government’s credibility is the head of the various types of credit, credit crisis arising in the current social and economic life, a certain sense of honesty and some local governments and departments relevant . In addition to vigorously promote the construction of social credit system, the Government first to set an example by strengthening their own credit system standardizing construction of win, which has become an important mission of the 21st century China’s local governments at all levels. What are the measures of the construction of Government credit?
(A) improving Government credit administration system.
Necessary to improve the Government’s credit administration system, you must understand the Government’s property. Only properties about it, to clear the Government’s responsibility, to the clear definition of their duty to correct.
Government management of way also should change, by control type of management way to consultations type of management way change, variable passive type of management way for interactive type of management way; by micro intervention of management way to macro-control of way change, here to description of is, macro management way also must by theory towards practice, need Government specific of management measures to implemented, is to government management theory for guidance, developed out micro of has can operation sexual of measures, this not implemented micro management of way, but from think big, narrow started (micro processing), solidly, is Government should bear of duties, and due of results must clear clear, tube what (dry of range) tube to what degree are to clearly to defined. Duties, the more blurred, the greater the power, the more likely cause confusion. Change of management, you need to create a transparent Government. Citizens ‘ lack of an effective information, identification of improper behaviors of the Government cannot even less able to monitor, so the Government should implement a Sun Executive. Governments have a variety of information superiority, such as artificially confidential, made public in a “rational ignorance” status, which gives powers running black-box operations to prepare the best conditions, improper behaviors of Administration is inevitable, government public belief inevitably decline. Implementation of administrative transparency, increase the transparency of information, is both a democratic Government under the concrete manifestation of citizens and consumers have the right to information learned, is the fundamental way of transformation of government administrative mode.
(B) establish and improve the system of Government credit.
Credit crisis is fundamentally a system crisis. Front by said of honesty system although good, but it not spontaneous to became reality, reform for has so years, but offside who, and dislocation who, and absence who still great Government in, is no system of constraint, Deng Xiaoping comrade to most popular of language stated has system of importance: “system good can makes villains cannot arbitrary rampage, System bad can makes good cannot do good even will towards back.  “to make the Government Act to maximize the output of clients enter the expected consistent with the Government, the political agents of the legitimate interests and political clients to maximize the benefits of a consistent, will have to rely on the system of masters of our destiny and rigid system to ensure that the public interest is not lost. Which credit system should have content?
1. statutory administrative acts. Has been talked about earlier, government agencies or civil servants side with self-interest and by maximizing the power to pursue personal interests may be, to get rid of dishonest behavior depends entirely on the consciousness of personal and moral constraints are not enough, relying on law is more powerful. Specific content is:
Improving the system of administration according to law. Corrupt officials should have deterrence, to mediocre officers, Rex also wants pressure, to make people think official not easily, there should be a hard constraint, that is to have a complete set of system;
Jobs terms of statutory. Granted executive powers must be provided by law or to make it have a legal basis; be allowed to establish posts, exercise shall not exceed the statutory mandate of the Executive power, ultra vires is invalid;
Administration according to law. Executive administrative acts, not only to have the legal authority, but also to follow the statutory procedures .
Law of priority. Administrative activities must not conflict with the law.
2. sound constrained control systems. Shall establish supervision system of administrative supervision, administration, administrative complaints, fault responsibility investigation system, occurring in all the acts of the Government of the people were placed under monitoring of laws and regulations. To set up multiple defense, to resolutely defending the approach to supervision. Strict work programmed management, supervising the events you want to track, to ensure disposal, there is a problem is the result of the complaint, are responding to.
3. establish a scientific examination system. Credit Executive should serve as key elements of the civil service examination. Initiative to establish credit grading system, establishment of assessment bodies, assessment of its content is: Government Department sets and functions, legal administration, decision-making and management science degree, degrees of freedom of information, government efficiency, knowledge and specialization in the civil service, government spending and debt, public satisfaction with government services .
4. Improving the system of punishment occurring. Strengthen intersectoral coordination, cooperation, implementation of combined punishment of dishonest behavior. Occurring in improving costs and investigated for its administrative and economic responsibilities, and reasonable compensation and damage to the unit or individual. To make faith a proud and worthy, occurring in the Pyrrhic, afraid to risk the risk of breaking.
5. establish information database system integrity in the civil service, building the platform for personal integrity. Establishment, assessment, including data acquisition, disclosure of the use, protection, supervision of joint credit information system. Credit data should be open to society. Some European countries in the form of legal rights to empower the Government to force open data, to ensure that data in an objective, impartial, comprehensive, accurate and dignified.
(C) strengthening credit education for civil servants.
(C) strengthening credit education for civil servants.
In this era of conflict and coexistence of multiple values, still use the traditional way of moral teachings is difficult to work, education on the ways and means should be sought from the content to a solid and innovative. From the perspective of content, important deduction status of civil servants, pay close attention to education of sense of public service, education and sense of values education, and civil servants understand the integrity of the content, significance. Of course, good faith is not isolated, it is closely related to the consciousness of law, market economy rules and other, for civil servants to develop multi-level and multi-angle, Omni-directional guidance. In the case of the Government’s moral crisis today, should be the creation of administrative ethics in the civil service training course, and we must focus our examination. As civil servants, should at least know these questions: what is faith? relationship between honesty and morality how? what are the performance of the current civil service honesty? what’s the harm? how to address the phenomenon of honesty? manner should be a wide variety of education . Through various means of education, improve the coverage of education, greater educational success, this can make civil servants increased from moral cognition of honesty to the moral feeling, into moral will, resulting in a conscious moral behavior. Only awaken the conscience of the people inside, people can effectively control their behaviour, introspection, self assessment, self control, self-improvement.
(D) strong public opinion atmosphere of honesty.
News media are Government good faith construction of powerful weapons, is to enable the Government and the people the main channels of communication, the media can influence both the Government and guide the masses. Therefore, the news media should be speaking up for the construction of Government credit, to focus on honesty, strengthen the propaganda of social morality and ethics, so that “good faith should be the fundamental guidelines of the Government” and “morality, also defeated the moral” truths become the consensus of the whole society . Strong news media an authoritative, wide impact, in recent years, some executives of bad faith because of media exposure and Lok lot. News media have a decisive influence.
Government credit are examples of social credit, is the whole core of the construction of social credit, great influence on social development. Therefore, the Government good faith construction of social credit leader should be. Face of the present situation of lack of credibility of the Government, increase the intensity of building honest Government, give full play to their exemplary and exemplary role immediately.
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