For serious environmental pollution in rural areas of objective reality, analyzed the current situation, types and characteristics of environmental pollution in rural areas and explained the causes of environmental degradation and pollution in rural areas of the main problems and proposed countermeasures and measures to control environmental pollution in rural areas, to strengthen environmental protection in rural areas, rural non-point source pollution control and the promotion of social, economic and sustainable development of ecological environment in rural areas is of important guiding significance.
With the acceleration speed of China’s modernization process, in an urban environment while getting better, growing pollution problems in rural areas. Especially at the higher levels of industrialization and urbanization of the Eastern developed area, environmental degradation and economic and social development in rural areas has formed a strong contrast. Rural environmental pollution problems on rural social development and hindering farmers ‘ welfare improvement will also increasingly [1~3]. Rural, agricultural safety and rural ecological environment pollution prevention has become China’s new emphases and difficulties in the work of environmental protection [4~7], if the issues are not fundamentally solve the environmental pollution in rural areas, building to thrust for the harmonious development of new Socialist rural areas cannot be carried out smoothly.
1 concept of environmental protection in rural areas and its significance
Rural environment refers to the rural Center of rural area within a variety of natural and artificial modification of natural factors in General. It includes the land, air, water, flora and fauna in the region, paving, installations, structures, etc. Rural environmental protection means on agricultural or environmental resources protection and management of activities in rural areas. Due to the rural environment is the center of agricultural environment, thus strengthening the rural environmental protection is the protection of rural economic and social sustainability, stability and harmonious development of needs, ensuring physical health needs of residents in rural areas, to improve the quality of rural environment and promoting economic, social and environmental sustainable development in rural areas have a very important role and significance.
2 present situation of environmental pollution in rural areas and type
2.1 rural environmental pollution
Currently, pesticides, chemical fertilizers and herbicides used in agriculture, agricultural waste to any emissions, extensive production and management of township enterprises are major sources of environmental pollution in rural area [7~14], lead to deterioration of water quality, soil pollution, atmospheric turbidity stench, directly affect the quality of agricultural products, jeopardizing agricultural production, and contagious diseases, affecting the health of residents.
2.1.1 wide and a large amount of livestock pollution, rural livestock, mostly unordered scattered condition of serious pollution, and the number, a large number of livestock and poultry manure in untreated emissions directly, resulting in the local environment (in particular groundwater) pollution, has now become a new source of pollution in rural areas [, 8]. Its pollution is more severe for intensive farms, livestock manure on organic pollution and eutrophication in surface water caused by pollution, cause odor pollution to the atmosphere, even underground water pollution, which contain pathogens also poses a great threat to population health.
2.1.2 fertilizer, pesticide application of high strength, losing large quantities of fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film use, and groundwater were contaminated a large area of farmland. Pesticide residues, heavy metals exceeding, restricting the improvement of the quality of agricultural products [8~14]. Fertilizer and pesticide application rate in China has been ranked first in the world. Consumption of chemical fertilizers for 4 t/a, calculated according to the sown areas, fertilizer application rate of up to 40 t/km2, far more than 25 t/km2 the developed set of safety limit. And structures also exist in the application of chemical fertilizer fertilizers anomaly. Fertilizer utilization is low, the high wastage rate, not only causing soil pollution of farmland, through farmland runoff caused on organic pollution and eutrophication of water body pollution and even ground water contamination and air pollution. At present, there have been many areas in Eastern non-point source pollution pollution load percentage than industrial pollution.
Approximately 1.3 million t/a of the use of pesticides, only about one-third can be absorbed by crops, most entering the water, soil and agricultural products, 9.13 million km2 of arable land have suffered different degrees of contamination, and a direct threat to people’s health. In 2002, 16 provincial capitals of vegetable wholesale market monitoring results show that the total detection rate of 20%~60% pesticides, excessive total rate of 20%~45%, far more than the corresponding detection rate of the developed countries. Therefore, these 2 types of fertilizers and pesticides pollution has made in the East of China’s shift from conventional point-source pollutant of water environmental pollution compound of combination of surface source and point source pollution.
2.1.3 rural domestic sewage pollution, solid waste disposal system needs to be improved because of the lack of basic drainage and garbage removal system, mostly without any treatment of domestic wastewater, ditches and direct discharge or deposit in the village the village ground, ultimately caused by drinking water source pollution. More than 60% crops straw not being efficiently used, become major factors of rural ecological environment pollution. 4 000 km2 of irrigated area of China from 1978 increase to 30 000 km2 of 2003, about the country’s total irrigated area of 10%. National solid waste stockpiled to 1 300 km2 of farmland is occupied or destroyed. Small towns and the rural population produces almost all of about $ 11.2 billion of rural refuse t open-pit dumping; Nearly all rural sewage over 2 × vertical, the serious deterioration in the quality of the rural environment around populated points.
2.1.4 plastic film using increased pollution increased to nearly 20 a, due to the popularity of greenhouse agriculture, plastic film pollution are becoming increasingly serious. Plastic film usage and coverage has been the highest in the world. Film dosage over 600,000 t in 2003, particularly in the developed regions. Zhejiang Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau, according to survey findings, investigation area average mulched with plastic film residue 3178 t/km2, cause production losses reached the output value of about one-fifth.
2.1.5 improper distribution of township enterprises, industry three wastes “pollution from rural subsistence economy in profound influence, rural industrialization are actually 1 characterized by extensive farming of low technology content, at the cost of the environment against the accumulation effect of industrialization village village fire, smoke, pollution control of not only cause difficulties, also directly or indirectly led rural and agricultural pollution of the environment and harm [1~4]. At present, China’s township enterprises COD of wastewater and solid waste emissions of major pollutants have been more than 50% per cent of total industrial emissions, and layout of township enterprises is not reasonable, pollutant treatment rate is significantly lower than the average rate of industrial pollutants. At present, the industry three wastes “trends in emissions and pollution are still increasing.
2.2 types of rural environmental pollution
According to the environmental pollution in rural areas, is divided into 3 main categories: ① by modern agricultural production caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, of plastic film mulching and other types of pollution, referred to as agricultural pollution (pollution); ② from small towns and rural infrastructure construction and environmental management of the point where hysteresis from domestic pollution, short-life pollution; ③ by inadequate layout of township enterprises, not enough to produce industrial pollution control, short of industrial pollution (point source pollution) .
3 problems in rural environmental pollution prevention and control
3.1 thinking is not in place, strong environmental awareness does not
In the process of agricultural production, one-sided pursuit of quantity at the expense of the quality of agricultural products, ignored the heavy use of pesticide and fertilizer on soil in rural areas, as well as river pollution. Most farmers on balanced fertilization of scientific medications, little is known, cannot be based on crops growth, soil nutrients distribution method of fertilization by soil testing, but merely increase the dose of indiscriminate pesticide blindly fertilization, results not only cause chemical fertilizers and pesticides utilization is not high, but also to the serious environmental pollution.
3.2 traditional agriculture patterns are broken, cultivation and planting of increasing separation of traditional livestock and smaller, one-stop planting, breeding, most livestock manure as farm manure, on environmental light. With the rapid development of livestock, livestock is gradually to the intensive, professional development, not only a significant increase in the total amount of pollution, and pollution is relatively concentrated trends, there have been some of the larger “sources”. Aquaculture in the breeding process is put in a lot of fine foods, live foods, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, causing water pollution in rivers. In planting, farmers only know to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides is simple, convenient, the significant decline in the proportion of animal manure as a fertilizer in farmland, breeding and planting caused serious separation.
3.3 serious shortage of investment funds, leading to weaknesses in the pollution control
Due to insufficient funding, cannot adapt to the development of modern agricultural means of production of the product structure of ecological agriculture needs. Over the years, China almost all to industrial and urban pollution prevention and control. Urban environmental pollution spread to the rural areas, while rural areas from financial channel has little to pollution control and environmental management funding for capacity-building, are also difficult to apply to for special treatment of the sewage charges.
3.4 regulatory system is inadequate and management improvement of the quality to be the current of the Environmental Protection Department has not yet healthy agricultural environment monitoring low quality of the specialized agencies, the full-time staff, monitoring equipment and a shortage of operating funds, no routine monitoring of the environment on Agriculture . Neither 1 set standard production practice for most agricultural products, and also a lack of product quality inspection standards, lacks the necessary detection monitoring tools.
4 rural environmental pollution control countermeasures and measures
4.1 stepping up publicity to raise awareness
Environmental pollution control in rural areas, the key is to start the broad masses of peasants, make full use of various media, through various effective means, widely carried out close to the actual, daily life, the masses of environmental advocacy and science education, ecological environmental protection in rural areas and create one learning knowledge and awareness of environmental protection policies, implementing the warm atmosphere of the ecological and environmental protection measures.
4.2 strengthening leadership, responsibility and
Socialist new countryside construction and rural pollution prevention as important part of the ecological construction and environmental pollution control, included in the agenda. Further clear responsibilities, establish a grasp and Division of work in collaboration. Environmental protection departments to earnestly strengthen the unified supervision and management of environmental pollution control in rural areas, such as rural domestic wastewater eco-treatment research and pilot rural environmental pollution prevention and control technology, explore new ways and new methods for pollution control in rural areas, efforts to study the development of pollution prevention planning in rural areas.
4.3 improvement of environmental legal system, strengthening the management of environmental norms in
Rural non-point source pollution control in agriculture must enter the law, administration of the new stage. Most key is necessary to improve the rural environmental protection laws and regulations, accelerate agricultural legislation of environmental protection of the environment, perfect the legal system of environmental protection, and gradually establish and improve the adaptation of rural characteristics and actual needs of environmental protection laws and regulations system, promoting the rural environmental protection work on institutionalized and standardized track.
4.4 increase the intensity of comprehensive management, rural environmental comprehensive treatment
Rural environmental comprehensive renovation, including: pollution control of livestock and domestic sewage of towns, unified collection of solid waste landfill and river “San Qing” (dredging, clearing, clearing floating material), and erosion control. Actively carry out comprehensive management of environmental pollution in rural areas, focus on the water pollution control, drinking water source protection, governance, human and animal fecal pollution treatment and comprehensive utilization of solid wastes. Increase the intensity of environmental enforcement in rural areas, to pollution and the destruction of the rural environment of violations investigated.
4.5 strengthening scientific and technological support, and developing non-pollution agriculture
Control of agricultural non-point source pollution must develop ecological agriculture, ecological agriculture development must rely on scientific and technological progress. Give full play to science and technology, agriculture, environmental protection, and other departments of the technical superiority, joint and rely on institutions of higher learning and scientific research institutes, vigorously carry out the research and construction of ecological agriculture.
4.6 promotion of cleaner production, accelerate agricultural waste resource treatment
In the promotion of cleaner production in rural areas, agricultural wastes and animal manure, such as through the utilization of crop straw comprehensive utilization, this is the best way to control agricultural pollution. -Such as livestock manure and straw through biogas treatment, use of biogas energy and use, firedamp liquid biogas residue as Garden, mulberry garden fertilizers; For substrate processing into complex organic animal manure, while maintaining the characteristics of fertilizer effect of easy to use, fast, and compensate for the adverse effects of chemical fertilizer on soil, also more definitive settlement of the excreta pollution of the environment issues. Maximum for agricultural waste to be reduction, recycling and harmless treatment.
4.7 supervision and management, agricultural pollution monitoring system established
Under the water pollution control law and the basic farmland protection Act empowers the people’s Governments above the county level administrative departments of agriculture on water quality of irrigation water, soil, agricultural products and basic farmland pollution monitoring of statutory duties. At the same time, agricultural sectors should also undertake the investigation of sudden agricultural pollution events and take the necessary measures, agricultural environmental control technology, and so on. Adhere to the “environmental Huimin” concept, the establishment of the “Government, farmers, environmental lead, sector assistance, jointly promoting” the rural environmental protection mechanisms. Building regulations, strengthen the supervision and management of pollution, are important guarantee ensuring that agricultural and rural environment from pollution. According to the law on environmental protection, developed around the village of practical village regulations, in the protection of the environment, prevention of environmental pollution into national environmental actions. Efforts to guide the peasants to take the initiative to form a good lifestyle, assist farmers refer to advanced production technology, through “green” production methods, coordination between economic development and environment protection, achieve the purpose of improving rural ecological environment.