Song, Government promotion of biliary copper production, first introduced in the mining field in which it? In the writings of Song dynasty, first push Xinzhou Yanshan field. Former Chu Xiaoxi of the Changsha records specifically mentioned “imperial court before its method in Qianshan”  (volume two or three of the South East · raozhou · under the scenery). Flood advisory in the Daye assigns a one-legged monster in fable also specifically mentions: “the leaching of copper, Yanshan Herald, first Dove @ ⑩ Gong. Push-and-drop, etc, like take the mask. “ (volume one of the Daye assigned) in the territory Sheng JI under the section of the Xinzhou said:” gall water in tongshan, shake-free. Started by raozhou Pouilly Zhang Jia creates, bile flooding iron available for copper, Shao shengyuannian (1094), began this bad car army, and Li Hing. “Some materials from above, the Imperial Court was first introduced in Xinzhou qianshanxian biliary copper, the leaching copper slightly more of the time it was in Zhang Jia Xian Shao shengyuannian (1094), subsequently extended to other mines. However since the building of the inflammatory recorded in the year  (October 2 volume 59 Shaoxing Xin Mao) and the Huang Song Zhongxing pilgrimage to two political,  (volumes one or two Shaoxing October 2 Xin Mao) are mentioned in: “element y in the result u@ ① begins reset raozhou Herald, the age amount of 50,000 pounds. Shao Saint two years (for the Huang Song Zhongxing pilgrimage to two political “three years”) confidence Yanshan, amount of age 380,000 pounds. “Clear that y result $ u@ â ‘ raozhou during the first set of Hennessy, start leaching of copper. How to analyze the material about the inconsistencies mentioned above? In my opinion: Zhang Qian as early as the Yuan y result u@ ① had raozhou in biliary copper production during the test, then test may be given an estimated mine supervision officers provide a venue, iron and other raw materials to help, as is the pilot phase, so local officials do not have to declare in advance to the Central Government. Xinzhou Yanshan field is official after the gain of the leaching of copper slightly, after investigation, first implemented by biliary copper site.
Because of high Xinzhou biliary copper production, important, existing in historical accounts of Xinzhou Yanshan field leaching of copper production is very much the content of, such as former Zhao Bo people in Southern Song dynasty records and so on. People Hu Wokun in the Ming dynasty in the Qian Tong have recorded in the records of Guang Xin Fu Chi-sheng, mentioned qianshanxian two leaching of copper premises: first, “copper Baoshan, in Southwest Qili County, one of the qibaoshan. There are bamboo leaves, under NI (after) pits, stone @ (11) bile Gush out Tetsushige leaching copper. Day long sunny alum can be picked up. Kin Lung CU field for three years, this waste. Its scale copper to soil water leaching of iron. “Second,” lock entrance, by the leaching of copper, in the County’s goose huxiang, treating about 70 miles. Cao 77 Groove, XING in Song Shao for four years, more invasive than Chun Hee eight years, County weimazi rock inscription, to Atsushi y result after u@ ① becoming waste. “ (volume three of the owned mining) (Note: jianlongsannian in Baoshan copper copper copper production should be mine, not bile copper. ) By contrast, raozhou Hennessy bile production records are not only very few biliary copper yields only occupies Xinzhou Yanshan one-eighth weak.
Four, biliary copper production process and production costs
Bile production technology of copper in the Song dynasty, there are two, water leaching of copper for bile, bile soil leaching of copper. Two processes, in flood management in the Daye assigns a one-legged monster in fable has detailed records  (volume one of the Daye Fu), is reproduced below:
From by in situation view, bile water dip copper and bile soil shower copper two species method of principle is same of, are is with bile alum water immersion iron tablets replacement out bile copper, just bile water dip copper is means directly will natural bile water introduced artificial construction of Groove in the, immersion iron tablets; and bile soil shower copper is to first collecting contains bile alum of soil (including mining Shi was abandoned of mine soil), water irrigation dip, makes bile alum dissolved into water in the, produced bile water, then with artificial Sheng scoop bile water shower dip iron tablets replacement out bile copper. Both of these methods, each with strengths and deficiencies, the song summed up: “ancient pit with water tank water, no water Department as liner. Biliary copper leaching water, less good than, its limited water; bile fried copper soil, public good, infinite in its soil. “Gall water leaching of copper has the advantage that less labor, low cost, but must rely on the bile of the rainy season when water is abundant in spring and summer engaged in production, under the influence of seasonal and climate is very large. Once less rain in spring and summer, Gush bile will also reduce water, naturally cannot be mass-produced biliary copper. Bile bile flooding soil leaching copper than CU put into artificial, high cost, but bile soil taken endless, production is not subject to influence of the season, can be produced all year round. Because the two methods each have pros and cons in bile after the implementation of flooding by copper, the song Government in shaozhou Cen Shui, tanzhou yongxing field, Xinzhou Yanshan field office implementation of the bile by soil leaching of copper, maximize production volume of copper.
Compared with copper mine production, bile bile soil leaching of copper water leaching of copper and two production costs are relatively low. First year of chongning (1102), referred to officials responsible for biliary copper production tour, every pound biliary copper production (here meaning bile flooding by copper), with capital of 44 provinces. He suggested: “at the beginning of handle, Yi increased the interest rate cuts, study that later followed. Tank water leaching of copper, 50 pounds to money for this; bile fried copper soil, 80 pounds to money for this. Than the ores of copper, its thickness. “ (three or four of 25 of domestic food) the Government paid to mine copper producer is the approximate cost per pound of 100  (volume four of the on the current affairs) to 250 paper  (three or four of 27 of domestic food). From the standpoint of saving the Government money, biliary copper production should be strongly advocated for by. From Northern Song late to song during, production a kg bile copper need of consumption iron volume not fixed not variable of, consumption iron volume at least of as literature pass examination under by contains, “large rate with iron II kg 42 was copper a kg”  (volume 18 syndrome tax examination five · pit smelter)), consumption iron volume and out copper volume than for 2.25:1; according to Song Hui to series draft under recorded, song Gaozong late, around years for iron material 880,000 kg above, and all bile copper production amount only 210,000 kg, consumption iron volume and out copper volume than for 4:1; song lizong period, in accordance with the Zhang Duanyi your ear set under said: “shaozhou rainwater in puddles (Shum) water field to @ (12) water dip copper of to, will million kg iron dip refining 200,000 (kg) copper sth sth”  (volume Xia) consumption iron volume and out copper volume than is increased to 5:1. The above materials, can be seen, with the increase in iron content consumption, biliary copper original low cost advantage of weakening or even disappear, this should be the song bile production after one of the reasons that cannot be restored to the Northern Song dynasty.
Five, during the Southern Song emperor Huizong to the changes of bile in copper production and yield
Song Zhe Zong Shaosheng years introduced after biliary copper in Xinzhou Yanshan, this new production method will soon be extended to the mining area of the tank water. Probably at the end of Emperor Zhezong of Song Shao Sheng yuan early breaks, swam through competent implementation of biliary copper production, to encounter mother ‘ s death after officers. Built in the first year of Yasukuni (1101), visit the mourning period, on to the Imperial Court: “yesterday at any bile water leaching copper daily stress: shaozhou Cen Shui, and tanzhou Liuyang and the Xinzhou Yanshan, and dexing, raozhou, and statehood tongshan, and tingzhou chishui and Shao Wujun Huang Qi Cai Chi, and Wuzhou, tanzhou Fanshan, Wenzhou nanxi, and chizhou in tongshan, where a decade. Only handle Cen Shui, dexing, Yanshan, and already tried, other than Manager. More the amount of money in the future, see losses-loss. “Hubu thought so” xuande swam by lang’s initiative reset Jac Jing Zhejiang Fujian Guangnan copper “. “The first year of chongning hubu statement: ‘ You Jingshen, self-confidence Yanshan biliary copper (in) per cent and 82 8,089 890,000 Jin Jin. …… Since encounter mother ‘ s death dismissed zhihou, are right official Shi provisional supervision, induced this bile copper ten lost five or six, this then except vocational thing yilai, since this year first month to on September 20 end, has received bile copper 172,123 kg 82 sth sth ‘ “ (food cargo three or four of 25) pursuant to above recorded speculated, You Jing in encounter mother ‘ s death Qian promotion bile copper production Shi, Xinzhou Yanshan field, and shaozhou Cen Shui field, and raozhou dexing field bile copper production effectiveness has very significantly. After You Jing to encounter mother ‘ s death, biliary copper production was slack, built in the first year of Yasukuni (1101), official mandate again swam the duct biliary copper production, various road in the South, and develop other has not been the Manager of a mine. After this, biliary copper production appears a peak. Introduced before the mirror continued funding governance changbian lost articles mentioned: Chung Chi-Ning for five years (1106) zhongshusheng revenue in copper prospecting various road, banker about a 1 million pound copper. Thereafter, according to song dry road II years (1166) of recorded, Northern Song emblem were period except letter, and Rao, and Shao three state production bile copper outside, pool, and TAM, and 构词成分。 three State also has production bile copper, six State yield total about 1.87 million more kg, called “progenitor amount” (Note: this a “progenitor amount” no callout era, according to dangerous pigment dip copper slightly sequence under said: “governance and five years rain more springs spill, by dip for up to”, and according to Song Hui to series draft under recorded: governance and November 8, raozhou reference point division playing upon said “River, and pool, and raozhou money prison drum cast money amount available full Yang shaozhou Cen Shui, and tanzhou yongxing, and Xinzhou Yanshan three large field and new made pit field received take copper material should Vice”, estimated governance and years Dang is bile copper production of flourish period. ), Is a well of bile in the examination of the Song dynasty copper most high yield. But the end of the song Gaozong only decades later, total biliary copper rapidly dropped to only about 210,000 pounds. Among them, biliary copper Wuzhou ceased production, five other States also dramatically reduce the amount of production. Now during the Northern Song dynasty emperor Huizong and biliary copper production around the end of the song Gaozong made to the table below (table 1), for reference.  (food goods 33 of 19 to 20 of 33)
Table 1 dry road money two years Secretary biliary copper production statistics tables
Ancestral places of origin (kg) end of Shaoxing yield (kg)
(About Hui zong Zheng and period)
Raozhou Herald field 51,029
Xinzhou Yanshan field 380,000
Chizhou Tongling County 1398 408
Shaozhou Cen Shui field 800,000
Tanzhou yongxing 650,000 3,414
Wuzhou Yongkang County 2000
After Emperor Gaozong of Song, with the exception of Rao, faith, pools, Shao, TAM biliary copper production in five States out from some fragmented records can also be seen in the following three copper also produces bile. Offices in tingzhou. You Jing “tingzhou chishui” as one of the developing biliary copper production sites. Ming dynasty Jiajing tingzhou Fu Zhi  (volume II of the mountains) is also mentioned in: Jinshan bile pools in shanghang County, “XING Huo Song Shichi flooding into pig iron, copper”. Qing dynasty to the Qing dynasty unified a more detailed log records: “(tingzhou shanghang) Jinshan sth There are three pools, water name gall. B pool has Springs gushing up and down, like a pool on the storage pool. Legend Song Shi dense near the County ground, red bitter water, drinking the injured person, subject to leaching of pig iron, copper-smelting, after the County was moved, its water was changed, not abnormal water. “ (volume 334 tingzhou House a · landscape under) actually, shanghang County Jinshan field had in Northern Song treatment flat four years (1067) February set for mining copper field, but mine of mining time very short, same year October strike,  (food cargo 33 of three) chishui field has is production copper of venues, reign Hee Ning nine years (1076) was strike.  (food total, nine of the 33) Furthermore, shanghang County there is also a major copper-producing fields, namely Chung Liu field. Day Holy by Liu Chung CU in Northern Song dynasty farms thrived, County magistrate and prison pit smelter, so County by Liu Chung Guo Fang to be migrated to a farm near County magistrate Liu Chung-field Affairs. Southern Song “dry road for three years, County magistrate Zheng Ji as a result, Shen Zhou and the Secretary” County for migration,  (volume 7891 the Ting · tingzhou Fu · mountains) Qian road, a four-year (1168) the first month, Fujian road to appease, TRANS, Criminal Division will beg on County moved back to Guo Fang, is approved.  (one to one or two fields one of the seven) will be the situation with the Qing dynasty unified the journal of record of the Institute see Chung Liu Jinshan, chishui and should at least be “secret near its”, and thus very likely that the Southern Song dynasty also engaged in biliary copper production. But the copper fields left no records of biliary copper production. It is saved in the Yongle Encyclopedia of the Lin Ting Zhi records, Chung Liu and Jinshan field has been spent in the late Southern Song dynasty.  (volume 7892 the Ting · tingzhou Fu Zhi · warehouse field, of the Treasury) estimates here of bile production results are unlikely. Second, baofeng Jiangnan West Road and rejuvenating army field, according to the territory Sheng JI records, “Po Fung, Daye County 90 miles. Out of the tank water, leaching of copper Tetsushige “ (Volume 33 of the Jiangnan West Road · rejuvenating · under the scenery). Third, chuzhou copper Gallery, songningzongjia 14 (1222), also mentioned in statements on the officials Liu: “copper Gallery are of Yanshan and the letter is tank water, spring and summer as soup, iron casting, copper color state variable. “ (volume 18 of the study of the tax levy for five · pit smelter) above these three biliary copper producing area only tingzhou has been swam by in late Northern Song dynasty as development land, rejuvenating and chuzhou are not mentioned. Therefore, the estimated biliary copper two places may be exploited only during the Southern Song dynasty.
Due to material lacking in the late Southern Song dynasty, now unable to comprehensively in the textual research of bile production and yield. Xinzhou qianshanxian mentioned has not been seen in several materials and shaozhou Cen Shui field leaching of copper: first, according to the territory Sheng JI Wang Xiangzhi records, Xinzhou “240 slot by this shower of copper, aged copper leaching 89,000 pounds”  (volume 21 of the Jiangnan road · Xinzhou · on the scene). The amount of revenue is the lowest record of Xinzhou biliary copper during the Song dynasty. From Wang Xiang Jia Ding Xin Sinian (Jiading 14 years, 1221) to preface the territory Sheng JI, 89,000 pounds of copper, the number must be immersed in the age after a certain amount of revenue a year, according to article three of the following materials, time had to move the amount of revenue. Second, according to the Ming and Qing dynasty local records records: Fuzhou East 120 in Dongshan iron production, during the Song Qian road, Dongshan iron reset, under the first ping Luo furnace, furnace, Red Bank, jinfeng furnace small pulp four furnaces,  (volume 27 of the native · Fuzhou prefecture) “prison officers established money. Lizong leather prison officer, Office of an linchuanxian Assistant Officer. Before the age of iron 242,046 kg, solution of qianshanxian leaching copper smelting “ (volumes one or two of the products). If iron producing 42 a pound per second Jin biliary copper calculation, only production of both iron Xinzhou Fuzhou Yanshan field leaching copper 100,000 pounds, this amount has exceeded the late Emperor Gaozong of Song, Shaoxing Xinzhou Yanshan copper amount field in the production of bile. Third, according to the outline of the interception of Zhao Bo Wan Kee records  (volume five of the interception outline of games in mind):
Lead-Fu, treasure Hing yan; lead fountain of baohuo here. Sometimes, of infinite. …… D ī @ ⑤ springs pool, soothing pools to ditch, cloth and iron, to saturate, iron into bronze. Field commander, taking labour, bad grain but Yap. Metallurgical iron-age games of jianghuai Hu Guang, Pan-Peng Li, s ù @ (13) water, road fragrant x ī @ (14) and the East, period of copper age, fountain of taking the lead in half. Amount to pounds ten 30,000 at the beginning, plus 1 time. Daylight does not catch, followed by night work, rate and eat two fresh, Yap meter for y ì @ (15) n ǎ i@ (16) is not filled. Come to a synopsis of nothing, cowardly measures be helpless to ignore, and access to the pick, empty, with Li Jia end, be unable to end stroke. Shi Jia for nine years, playing upon junshou all these remarks, please outline the age solutions m, thousand 600 to fill is a surname, still insufficient. Ten for three years, complex transmission and how the accountability rating reporters Tung depending on nationality. Zhang Junqian henglai AZ, sighed and said: ‘ soldiers, industrial estate gushu community soldiers are soldiers. He was when the rates, this improper rating yeah? ‘ Divisions in the County. County taishou chengongzhangli on rates, total lang Dai Gong Jue with emotion Xu Zhi, tat at the Imperial Court. Thus, lower rates, State Home aged metres, then as lead Yap permanent advantage of sth Rice, copper, drum casting envious, Huan Quan diffraction, Hui Lizhou in Sihai sth Aware from this material, at least in songningzongjia for the nine-year (1216) yiqian, qianshanxian level of biliary copper production has increased from 130,000 to 260,000 pounds. In order to complete this amount, soldiers day and night production, food supply come synopsis was insufficient interception class m chat solutions complement. Song Li Zong Shaoding, 13 years after two years (1229), qianshanxian was ordered to pay again the outline solution m, playing upon by officials at all levels, before eventually eliminates this burden, to provide food for safeguard for leaching of copper producers. Estimated amount of qianshanxian leaching copper remained at about 260,000 pounds. This figure cannot be compared with 380,000 pounds of the late Northern Song dynasty, but it also shows that qianshanxian leaching copper production in the late Southern Song experienced Gaozong after Valley, has been rising, reaching more than most high yield two-thirds of Northern Song dynasty. Four, according to Zhang Duanyi said the your ears set before, when lizong, iron million pounds of copper leaching of shaozhou Cen Shui field 200,000 pounds, this yields only weak one-fourth of the Northern Song period yield, but also significantly rebound than during the Emperor Gaozong of Song. Known as the “big three” of tanzhou yongxing in field, due to lack of material, non-textual research on cable.
All in all, the bile production rise in Song dynasty, partially compensate for the decline of copper mine production impact on the production of money and finance activities, outside of the mining industry in the traditional production method in ancient China and opened up a new way. Working people summed up the bile in ancient copper production principles, remains one of the foundation of modern theories of wet metallurgy.