Through a literature review on research of sports social stratification, describes the social stratification in sport’s social, historical, diversity and universality, effectiveness. From both the social stratification & sports two perspectives discussed in social mobility of players and sports participation of different social strata. Proposed a study on sports theory and practice of social stratification in China need to explore several issues.
1 Overview of the theory of social stratification
Traditional social stratification study, has been the subject of sociology. Theory of social stratification is divided into two factions, one by one are Marxism, a is the Weber school. Marx is mainly based on the means of production have divided social classes; Weber multiple index system to divide, he identified three indicators: wealth, prestige and power. Under their influence, most recently, 20 years, theories of social stratification developed into three: the first class school of pie is still advocated the Division of social classes, this school also has two branches, the new school and xinweibo School of Marxism. Second school advocated the Division of occupational prestige as the main index to class, a school in United States Dimon as representative of the University of California, Los Angeles. Third to popular attention in recent years France represented academic fellow of the Institute of Pierre Bourdieu, his theory is characterized by using human divided consumer hobby class.
After more than 20 years of continued economic reform, China’s social stratification of the Department has undergone fundamental changes, the original simple “two class a class” a marked differentiation in social structure. In early 2002, Chinese Academy of social sciences published the “social class in contemporary China”, China has differentiated into ten sectors of society, modernization of the basic structure of social strata ingredients are in place, modern social strata sequence has been set, the formation of a modern structure of social strata in China. In 2004, Zheng Hangsheng Liu, Jinming and proposed transition structure of social strata in China should follow some basic principles, based on these principles, professional standards Division of the social stratification in transition suggested a preliminary framework, to divide the urban social boundaries is 7 clear career walks.
2 research of sports social stratification purposes
Lv Shuting Professor pointed out that, from social tiered of perspective to research mass sports, conducive to has solutions and master different class crowd of sports attitude, conducive to understanding sports population of class structure, conducive to has targeted to used different of method tiered development sports population; conducive to deepened on contemporary China social changes of understanding, conducive to understanding China social class of differentiation and evolution, and to this as forecast China mass sports reform and development of under one, service Yu policy developed and further promoting mass sports of development.
Social stratification in sport also has guidance significance to the sports industry. L9 century 90 ‘s to the early 20th century, United States of many large-scale luxury sports clubs have been closed down, and some small and medium-sized clubs had gradually occupied most of the market, is why luxury Club funding is too large, chaotic management, but small and medium-sized clubs can meet the needs of the middle class and working class. Effective marketing strategies should be based on different social classes, sports market into different sections with the same features, so as to understand the needs and aspirations of all sectors, designed to meet the needs of the various parts of sports product and sports services.
In addition, sports associated with economic inequality, and how sports associated with cultural ideas on economic success and failure, social class is how sports participation mode of the Institute of the same community, the extent to which sport for athletes and other sports organizations in providing career opportunities to find employment opportunities, to what extent. Participation in sports can help an entire career success and upward social mobility for players, which adopted a series of questions need answering the social stratification theory and practice of physical education.
3 physical characteristics of social stratification
3. 1 sports social stratification in social
Sports participation reflects the lifestyle of established on the basis of social class, lifestyle of these appear, can reflect to some extent the way you have the resources and the use of these resources. Socio-economic differentiation has been involved in all areas of social life, and affects all aspects of sports participation. Physical contact with the social stratum of society and social relations together, organized sports depend on the social organization or individual fund management institutions, facilities and organizational experience. Also, sports interaction, sports and media interaction with consumers, sports and corporate business interaction, physical interaction with Governments, even those like the United States, and Canada, countries of Western Europe such a rich society, sport participation was only popular in upper middle class.
3. 2 sports social stratification and historic
More than 2000 years ago, ancient Greece provides only man has the power to participate in the Olympic Games, prohibit women from participating in or watch, women offenders would be punished by falling off a cliff throwing dead. Men occupy the dominant position in the personal life and social life, status of women is always dependent of the man of the second, equal social rights are lost. Ancient Olympic Games not only for the contestants and audience a clear limit, and the social status of the winner will also be promoted. Early winners get the honor of the Olympic Games on the field, as the 31 fierce competition between city States and the introduction of incentive policies, money and interest began to intervene in competitive sports. 6th century BC, Consul Solon first provided to the winners of the Olympic Games in Athens to 500 Silver Award, this money can buy 500 sheep or 20 slaves. In the middle ages, Knights only nobles have the opportunity to receive education, rider education is the core of horse riding, swimming, hunting spear, investment, Gill sword, A Game of Chess, poetry, etc. Aristocrat to show and maintain their social status. Even today, the organized sport continues to be a luxury, many people cannot afford, it is still prevalent in the upper social strata.
3. Universality of social stratification in 3 sports
Sports in the field of social stratification in sport is everywhere. Famous athletes or Olympic champion social prestige and very different treatment and ordinary athletes, the Olympic champion to gain upward social mobility opportunities through sports. In terms of sport, different groups of occupational stratification or attitudes, needs, and sports participation of interest groups are differentiated.
3. 4 diversity of social stratification in sport
Physical basis of social stratification and there is no unified – standard, sport is a wide variety of social stratification. We can according to tier different biological, psychological and social factors. Including personal forms, personal factors such as age, gender, family background, education, social, environmental and other social factors.
Abroad has on sports social stratification of the basis for the study of literature reports, such as ThomasC. Wilson’s research shows that social tall people more involved in sports, but they rarely participate in so-called “proletarian” campaign. Social survey in 1993, a phenomenon that originated in different socio-cultural and economic capital, cultural capital and social and economic capital of the rich rich and differentiated, rich social culture more reluctant to participate in the so-called “proletarian” campaign. In short, the socio-cultural capital than economic capital to better explain the sports participation. Reflect the role of the community involved in the sports social inequalities and cultural pluralism.
3. 5 validity of social stratification in sport
Sports affect the participant’s identity, social stratification, sports consciousness and even the social prestige of sports consumption, sports and social stratification closely associated lifestyle. And sports, to some extent also provides athletes with career satisfaction and return.
4 sports and perspectives of the social stratification
4. 1 sports social classes
Dong Jinxia research in the 1990 of the 20th century, the father, the mother’s economic status and education of elite athletes engaged in competitive sports influence. Family background and male and female athletes in sports participation, differences in participation in project reveals family relationship must exist between the cultural and gender.
Zhong Bingshu pointed out that, excellent sports teams of nature decided has athletes into has excellent sports teams of gate zhihou, either hard training, with superb of movement technology, and excellent of movement results meet social of hope, while get self meet and substances interests, either because movement results up not to provisions of requirements, from high a level of sports teams drops to low level of sports teams, last mercilessly to was extrusion sports teams of gate. Players grow up fully explain their scores in the role of sport, even an ordinary farmer’s descendants, because their scores well, there will be people’s respect.
Elite athletes is not a constant identity or occupation, it is just a location exists with the players ‘ scores of exists. Sports performance can sustain, and can also improve or decline. Elite athlete status also changes with the changes in its athletic achievements, he is likely to be higher levels of player, Cho also back into the ranks of the non-athletes. In fact, regardless of how its performance, athletes will face retired from elite athletes to new jobs. This is the best player in the life of a “turning point”. At this turning point, some promotions, some decline in status, some people are working hard to find.
When young people can use sport participation to extend their social life and personal experiences of the time, when they are looking for professional will have the advantage. However, when participation restricted social life and personal experiences when it is likely to have a negative impact on career success. These modes exist also vary according to the different sports. Of course, today many athletes very high income almost guarantee their future career success, and economic security.
Many elite athletes at home and abroad were obtained through physical degrees, scholarships, and finished his education, and is likely to achieve career success. Also has a lot of players by career sports out of poverty and gain upward social mobility. While for some people, actually exists in physical cause career opportunities for upward social mobility, but these opportunities rarely, and the time was not for long. Retired athletes can often lead to stress and on personal challenges, facing re-employment of retired athletes in our country, poverty, medical and other issues. Sports with the social model of social inequality in combined together. And we should accept the notion, namely via Sports Road to success is conditional, it applies only to the part of a limited number of people, and it is more dependent on the physical skills of show on the sports ground.
Sold，A． S． And Yusuff,K. B． Investigation of socio-economic status of the Nigerian elite athletes, social background and the experience of social mobility, they collected the L5 item 341 of elite athletes (226 men athletes and 115 female athlete) metrics and social stratification and their parents to be addressed. Study on knot shows that most of the elite athletes from low socio-economic status of families, many elite athletes have experienced upward social mobility.
ChamblissDanielF． To discuss the angle of social stratification of Olympic swimmer’s outstanding performance. In the sports of swimming, clear social stratification exists not only between individuals, also exists in only in summer activities, loosely organized, not competitive, and only a low level of part-time volunteer coach of the Club and the intense competition of the Olympic team at the highest level of q. Social stratification is acceptable to the student athletes because swimming success is to define such social stratification. Different exercise level is of a different nature. Social stratification in sport is unconnected, is continuous. Exist between the different movements level interrupts important substantive (not continuous). Differences in attitude, discipline and skill to explain the reasons for the success of the athletes, more accurate than explained by sports talent.
4. 2 social stratum’s sports
4. 2. 1 q sports participation mode of different social strata sports participation is different between different social classes. Jackc． Watosn ⅱ, scholars believe that sports participation mode of the layer and low-level groups in society such as table 1-3.
SeheerderJeroen,VanreuselBart,TalsMarijke in accordance with people’s social and cultural background, investigation on the application of principal component analysis 1979-1999 Belgium Handers adult leisure sports participation, and ask at any time change in trend. Studies show that leisure sports social inequalities still prevalent, that age, gender and social status have been impact movement in the most important factor. According to age, gender and social status are different, people not only to participate in leisure sports of different frequencies, and sports participation, social differences also exist in the context of the Organization and participation on your preferences.
Yiannakis1973 year at the foot of AndrewATheoryofSportStratiifcation research purposes in order to develop a conceptual model to explain and predict why sports of different social classes have different preferences. Support the theory and practice of high social class tend to more expensive, personal and unlimited outdoor sports, relatively, they accept lower mass culture. Based on these variables, predicting social status score of 39 campaign, reflecting j, the social status of these sports.
In addition, sports audience appreciation mode also is subject to the influence of social class. This can be through more and more serious sports fans in the stadium and the stadium separating unsubstantiated. Luxury box, Club seat and season ticket standards mode by wealth and power to quarantine people, respectively. Thus social classes often in people watching games are once again affirmed. Influence of sports appreciation of social stratification factors include media, individual sports, hobbies, like the individual sport sports skills of sports consumption level and so on.
5 in the study of social stratification in China sports several issues worth discussing
According to the theory and practice of social stratification in sport at home and abroad, we believe that social stratification is permanent. Social stratification is essentially due to resource people have in the social structure of society caused by unequal social status-square, because society has on the overall scarcity of resources, impossible to satisfy everyone is given equal resources required and, therefore, existing social stratification has been accompanied by human society. Because the social differences are permanent, economic inequality is permanent, and the sport itself stressed the unequal. Sports social stratification is gradually attention by scholars, then the following questions should be answered by the PE theoretical circles:
(1) sports social class division standard (such as consumption, self awareness, career, etc).
(2) forecast China popular or upcoming social status of popular sports.
(3) preference of Chinese sports at all levels.
(4) sports resources in all sectors of society and socio-cultural resource on the sports tier effect.
(5) participation in the flow of social sports of all levels of society.
(6) how to use sport sports economic theories of social stratification.