Many favorable conditions for large-scale development of nuclear industry in Gansu province. The nuclear industry and traditional Gansu’s new energy industry, energy industry and other industries to form a good match, combined, effectively pulling the provincial economic development more quickly. Shall seek the country will focus its future strategy for the nuclear industry in Gansu, expanding the scale of existing nuclear industry, invest in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, inland nuclear power plant, nuclear equipment manufacturing and other major projects, support, help in Gansu nuclear enterprises and research institutions to participate in domestic and international advanced research and development of nuclear science and technology will build Gansu into modern nuclear industry base with world influence.
Huge and rapid development in the Gansu province in the next period an important reality is a nuclear industry in the area. Compared with other provinces of the country, have many favorable conditions for large-scale development of nuclear industry in Gansu province; compared with other characteristic advantage industry of Gansu province, is the only extraordinary development of the nuclear industry has become in the country’s largest and unique advantage and can effectively promote the economic development of the province of pillar industries. Province in implementation industrial strong province strategy in the, should adaptation world nuclear power industry again rise, and domestic nuclear power industry speed up development of very good opportunities, actively support in the nuclear group, enterprise in Gansu construction nuclear technology application and development Park, and international Shang advocate of nuclear energy park, nuclear Enterprise cluster, fight for national in accordance with the construction nuclear energy park of thought, will nuclear industrial strategy focus placed in Gansu, in Gansu gradually investment construction large nuclear fuel Hou processing factory, and inland nuclear power factory, and mixed oxides fuel components factory and nuclear heating, and nuclear technology application, and nuclear equipment manufacturing, large small and medium nuclear industrial project, development group new of nuclear industrial industry, support, and help Gansu of nuclear enterprise and research institutions, and tertiary institutions active participation at home and abroad advanced nuclear power station and can controlled hot nuclear fusion power station, advanced nuclear science and technology of research and development. In Central and local of common efforts Xia, in about 20 years time within, will makes Gansu became China advanced of nuclear material production research base, and uranium transformation base, and isotope production base, and nuclear fuel Hou processing base, and nuclear fuel components manufacturing base, and nuclear waste processing disposal base, and advanced of inland nuclear power base and nuclear science and technology development base, makes Gansu of nuclear enterprise group in China nuclear fuel cycle system in the is more highlight of strategy status, became technology advanced, and facilities good, and supporting level high, and adaptation market economy requirements of modernization integrated nuclear industrial base and has world effect of China “nuclear Valley”. Nuclear industry through industry chain, and Gansu in wind, solar, biomass and other new energy industry and oil and natural gas and chemicals, coal, thermal power, hydroelectric, and traditional energy industries, as well as other industries form a good match, combinations, effectively pulling the faster development of many industries, achieving strong industrial province and economy modernization goals of the strategic pillars of the Community industry.
1. external conditions in development of nuclear industry in Gansu province
1. new era of national nuclear industry development strategy
In nuclear science and technology and other modern nuclear industry is driven by development of science and technology directly related to the formation of the high tech industry, their level of development is important reflection of national scientific and technological strength, and overall economic strength. Many countries in the world has established a complete nuclear industrial system. China’s nuclear industry is to safeguard State security, maintaining China’s nuclear power status, supporting important strategy for sustainable development of the national energy industry. Speeding up the development of nuclear industry is the economic, science and technology in the new period, important part of development strategy for national defense.
China nuclear industry development plan: “25″ to further enhance nuclear power during independent capacity, initially achieved the bulk of the nuclear power industry, large-scale construction; industry of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power for supporting, coordinating development; development of nuclear technology applications, increase the proportion of nuclear technique application in the national economy in General. To 2020, nuclear power run installed capacity reached 4 0-kilowatt, under construction nuclear power unit reached 1 8 million-kilowatt, nuclear power accounted for to national generating capacity of 4%; formation and nuclear power scale phase supporting of nuclear fuel cycle industry ability; nuclear technology on national economy of contribution significantly improve; large pressure water heap nuclear power technology, and ship nuclear power technology, and nuclear fuel cycle core technology, and important nuclear Foundation Research near international advanced level; formation civil-military combination, and technology advanced, and has international competitiveness of nuclear industrial system. In 2008, the relevant departments of the State according to the national economy and the rapid development of the energy industry situation, related to nuclear power medium-and long-term development planning index be increased again, will be moved to the nuclear power generating capacity of 2020 5%, in 2012, 415-building a nuclear power plant for production each year, beyond 2020 more than 10 nuclear reactors for production each year.
Subjects of modern nuclear industrial system is called the nuclear fuel cycle system in General. The so-called nuclear fuel cycle, is to include the reactor fuel supply and spent fuel treatment and disposal of all cycle-for product, production process and corresponding industries. To uranium 1235 of using mainly, nuclear fuel cycle main including following constitute part: (1) uranium of exploration and mining; (2) uranium stone of processing and refining; (3) uranium of isotope separation is uranium concentrated; (4) nuclear fuel components of manufacturing; (5) in reactor in the using nuclear fuel; (6) nuclear fuel Hou processing; (7) radioactive waste of processing disposal; (8) nuclear equipment manufacturing; (9) nuclear technology of other application. This 9 section of each is an important branch of industry or trade in nuclear industry groups. Where the reactor is the nuclear fuel cycle Centre link, before the reactor production known as the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, reactor production after collectively referred to as back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Connection between front-end and back-end close form the basis for the nuclear fuel cycle nuclear power production is basic guarantee and conditions.
Compared with the rest of the country, Gansu in the coming decades building a series of large projects, formation of the nuclear industry with international impact and local characteristics of nuclear industry cluster advantages, good basic conditions to further accelerate the development of the nuclear industry.
Construction of Gansu is China’s first and fastest growing and largest nuclear industrial base, with uranium mining-metallurgical and geological exploration, production of nuclear fuel and nuclear components manufacturing, nuclear facilities decommissioning disposal, spent fuel reprocessing (experimental factories have been built) and the application of nuclear technology, and other important industry and its components more complete nuclear industrial system. Currently, Gansu of nuclear industrial main has 6 a industry: (1) uranium geological exploration and mining smelter, has quite considerable of nuclear Geological team; (2) uranium stone processing and refining in the of core links-uranium transformation, is: will uranium water smelter factory production of uranium of oxides transformation into four fluoride of uranium, and six fluoride of uranium or metal uranium; (3) uranium of isotope separation (uranium concentrated), is: will uranium 1235 and uranium 12,382 species isotope separation, makes of transformation for high concentrated uranium; (4) nuclear fuel components of manufacturing; (5) nuclear fuel Hou processing (has built Middle test factory); (6) radioactive waste of processing disposal. Leading enterprises and institutions have long been engaged in nuclear research and production management technology supporting condition. Another promising basis for supporting materials production units of the nuclear industry, such as aluminum aluminum factory in the Northwest of China to provide domestic centrifuge machine shell, fangda carbon plant 16 major projects for the country, provide high temperature gas-cooled reactor demonstration reactor development and production of reactor internals. Beishan and uranium deposits in Western Qinling, around the prospective areas, tidal basin, Ordos basin, find this area to intensify its exploration for sandstone-type uranium deposits, increase reserves of uranium geology of Gansu province, to a certain scale of natural uranium production capacity. For major nuclear industrial enterprises and further improving uranium conversion and enrichment production. Large commercial site survey report, spent fuel reprocessing plant project proposal has passed the examination of the relevant departments of the State, Gansu geological, hydrological, meteorological, seismic, and other conditions are suitable for construction needs, should be determined as soon as factory in Gansu.
Nuclear production enterprises of Gansu province has built in pilot-scale production, reprocessing of nuclear fuel production line, production line for isotope separation, with strong scientific research ability of production of nuclear material, nuclear components and subject to large outside the reprocessing plant and the nuclear components manufacturing and other major industry in Gansu province has its own nuclear industry. Speed up the development of current nuclear power industry, nuclear fuel cycle industry faces rapidly growing needs of the Community situation, existing nuclear industry of Gansu enterprise is the main carrier of the national plan for the nuclear industry, is ushering in a new peak of development.
In terms of geology, geography, climate, Gansu has the unique advantage of the development of nuclear industry, particularly in Western Gansu province’s vast Gobi region, sparsely populated, arid, windy, construction of large industrial projects and small and medium-sized cities and towns of resource combinations of good, suitable building covers an area of large, radioactive waste and separated from the crowd of nuclear industry projects. Away from the border of the region, conducive to the preventive activities of foreign terrorist organizations.
2. the focus of the nuclear industry development in Gansu province
National energy industry and the overall requirements for the development of nuclear industry, while based on natural and industrial composition of the region, should in the future and development of nuclear industry in Gansu province industry mainly in the following categories:
2. existing nuclear industry
Nuclear power in the country, driven by the rapid development, nuclear industry chain downstream link capacity is greatly expanded, and on aspects such as nuclear fuel, uranium enriched in the upper reaches of the demand for capacity expansion. Over the next few decades, nuclear power also will develop faster, by 2020 nuclear power machine than the increase of 2007 times, by 2035 would increase from 2007 about 15 times. Nuclear power on such a quick growth will further promote the nuclear industry chain, downstream links more large-scale expansion of production capacity. Nuclear power and nuclear industry drivers of growth in demand in other industries, nuclear industry growth in Gansu province may be larger than the above multiply, double to 10 times faster speed. Therefore, should relying on has some industry strength and Foundation conditions, moderate ahead expanded main nuclear industrial enterprise of uranium transformation, and uranium concentrated, and nuclear material manufacturing, upstream industry scale, upgrade production technology, and independent development ability and Enterprise integrated quality, perfect Foundation facilities and on enterprise of support measures, continued enhanced industry advantage and as national nuclear industrial base of function, and for new of nuclear industrial industry of formation, and development and new of nuclear industrial project construction provides reliable relying on and support.
2. after nuclear fuel processing industry
By 2020, nuclear power plants discharge of spent fuel per year across the country about 900 tons, by the year 2020 over the total amount of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants is estimated to be about 7 000 tons, after 2020 will also build a considerable number of nuclear power projects, then discharged spent fuel will increase rapidly. Planned for completion in 2020 large nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in China to deal with nuclear power plants discharged spent fuel, recycled uranium and, realization of closed-circuit nuclear fuel cycle.
After you have a development process in the country, Gansu province industry the best conditions, the construction of spent fuel reprocessing companies preferred. Only after processing pilot plant is built in the mining area of Gansu province in the middle. Relying on base for the nuclear industry in the province of basic conditions, accelerate the construction of large nuclear fuel reprocessing plant demonstration, creation and implementation of the project, in the Gansu construction one of the largest base for nuclear fuel reprocessing, is a recent development of Gansu in the nuclear industry has a major strategic task.
2. actively seek to build inland nuclear power station
Strive to build inland nuclear power plant in Gansu province, to develop advanced nuclear power industry, strengthen the comprehensive advantages of Gansu’s new energy, is the development of nuclear industry in Gansu province in the near future a major strategic task.
Gansu province should expedite the construction of a nuclear project preparatory work. On technology strategy in the nuclear power plant shall select the third-generation nuclear power technology. Main features of the third generation of nuclear power technology is nuclear power system simplifies, reduces power station equipment, security and economy of double benefits. In March 2007, in China and United States Westinghouse company signed an agreement to introduce the AP1000 technology, one in sanmen and Haiyang, Shandong province for the construction of 2 units. AP1000 technology more advanced than second generation technologies, safer and more economic, more simple design, security target running nuclear plants than it is now leading by about two orders of magnitude, is the preferred technology for new nuclear power plants around the world. According to China’s nuclear safety standards of the new regulatory requirements, nuclear power plant radioactive waste emission limit values, inland nuclear power plants currently allows only reached the coast of one-one thousandth only a third-generation nuclear power plants have achieved this standard, so nuclear power project must use the AP1000 technology on land within the State. Gansu active coordination group and other enterprises do to master the AP1000 technology, build inland nuclear power plant work.
2. nuclear heating industry
Nuclear heating is a new technology, new industries developed in the 1980 of the 20th century, has become a promising way of utilization of nuclear energy. Its uses include: large-scale industrial heating, such as coal gasification, liquefaction, metal smelting, such as desalination; residential heating and cooling.
Nuclear heating is the main advantage of huge instead of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gas; higher than the other forms of reactor safety and coal-fired boiler; reduction of environmental pollution, radiation exposure during normal operation on the surrounding environment is significantly less than coal-fired power plants, only coal-fired boiler one-thirtieth; less land, to centrally generate large amounts of heat; reduce large amounts of fossil fuels for transport. Nuclear heating can be provided for industrial and residential cleaning, security, the economy of the new heat source, in Sweden, and Russia heating such as widely used in developed countries, has a good economic and social benefits.
China’s Tsinghua University’s Institute of nuclear and new energy through research, development and testing, was late in the 1980 of the 20th century was built to heat the homes of 50,000 square meters building of small nuclear reactor run and vote in person, indicated that China had begun industrial application of research results in this regard.
Gansu of coal, and oil, fossil energy resources relative lack, and consumption fossil energy heating by caused of environmental pollution increasingly serious, should relying on this province existing of nuclear industrial enterprise, and and at home and abroad about enterprise and scientific research institutions actively established collaboration, and joint relationship, research, and development, and introduced advanced of in the, and small nuclear reactors technology, planning and construction all kinds of small, and micro-heating reactor, development clean, and security of new nuclear heating industry, steadily expanded nuclear heating industry scale, enhanced comprehensive energy advantage, reduce traditional heating industry caused of environmental pollution, will coal, and oil, and natural gas, fossil energy resources saving down, expanded development added value more high of chemical industry.
2. actively participate in research and development of advanced nuclear power technology
Relying on related to nuclear science and technology research and development institutions and universities in Gansu province, and in cooperation with enterprises of the nuclear industry, preparation for the construction of Gansu College of technology and the Institute of nuclear technology for the nuclear industry, actively participating in research and development of advanced nuclear reactor technology, efforts for technical innovation, engineering, construction, and a place for advanced nuclear power production.
First of all to participate actively in China are introduction, assimilation and innovation of the third generation of nuclear power technology, is seeking to build nuclear power stations in the province make technology, and talent preparations. Second, we must actively participate in the fourth generation of nuclear power technology research and development of fast breeder reactor technology. Consumption of fast reactors in nuclear fuel, nuclear energy also can produce the equivalent consumption 1.2. 6 times of fissile nuclear fuel, which can make the fuel burn more, nuclear proliferation, nuclear fission resources thus become almost always not an energy resource. Fast reactor technology can also be burned 构词成分。 radionuclides with long life and long-lived fission product, make it into a stable, not toxic radionuclides, at the same time can produce a neutron and a considerable energy, 构词成分。 radionuclides which are not only no longer toxic waste, but also when fuel use.
Currently, fourth generation nuclear energy system in the technology Shang most mature of is sodium cold fast neutron heap, this fast heap and several seat pressure water heap and corresponding of Hou processing factory, and MOX fuel components factory and several small and medium nuclear reactors can composition “fast heap a Hou processing factory a hot heap” relative concentrated distribution of “nuclear energy park”, in implementation nuclear proliferation and 构词成分。 Department radionuclide good variable aspects can made very good of scale benefit, nuclear industrial also will became almost no eventually waste of clean industry. This, is the crux of future nuclear industry development strategy of Gansu province. Only for the nuclear industry in Gansu Province towards this “nuclear energy parks” direction can be achieved “nuclear industrial promotion, relying on enriching the province and industry” strategic objectives.
2. development of nuclear industry equipment manufacturing industry
The nuclear industry is a highly intensive technical and financial industry, demand for equipment, complete sets of strong, high technical content and localization requirements, important field is driving the development of equipment manufacturing industry. Industrialization of already established nuclear power equipment in China and domestic policy, to promote mature and advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant to achieve the bulk of the design and manufacture. Countries determine the localization of nuclear power equipment industry and areas of focus are:-Mega kilowatt pressurized water reactor nuclear power station equipments, gas centrifuge uranium enrichment, reprocessing of nuclear fuel, uranium glass of mixed oxide fuel, high-performance manufacturing equipment such as nuclear fuel elements. Formation in Northeast China, Shanghai, and currently has three nuclear power equipment manufacturing base in Sichuan province, has more than more than 100 enterprises have a production capacity of nuclear power equipment.
Gansu has formed certain nuclear industry equipment manufacturing capacity, mainly in the construction of the nuclear group affiliated enterprises, and the petrochemical industry, pressure vessels, electronics and other large and medium-sized civilian equipment manufacturing enterprises, conditions of participation in the nuclear industry equipment manufacturing and to form new industrial advantage. In provinces, municipalities and enterprises should be actively concerned with nuclear, chemical or nuclear construction group and its subsidiaries in the group, as well as other related to the nuclear industry equipment manufacturing enterprises, research institutions to establish a joint, collaborative relationship, efforts in the field of nuclear industry equipment manufacturing especially the third generation of nuclear power equipment manufacturing area have the advantage of a place.
3. development of nuclear industry several important measures of Gansu
3. active policy towards central support
Major factors restricting the development of nuclear industry in Gansu province is mainly related to the national institutions and policies is not yet in place. In order to make access to rapid and effective development of the nuclear industry to stimulate local economic development, the provincial party Committee and provincial governments should closely cooperate with China National nuclear industry group and the relevant departments of the State, striving country issued the following important policies:
3.1.1 focus the development strategy of China’s nuclear industry in Gansu, in planning and construction of Gansu province, including inland nuclear power plant, with dozens of large and medium-sized nuclear industrial enterprise “nuclear energy parks” policy and supporting policies.
3.1. 2 deepening the reform of structures, mechanisms of defense industry, implementing the nuclear industry in civil-military integration of production, management and development of science and technology policy. There are now commercial enterprises engaged in the nuclear industry’s policies and mechanisms, such as the China Guangdong nuclear power group company is one example, its operation, developing a very successful. Shall seek the civilian enterprises in Gansu through joint stock form entering the nuclear enterprise group, engaged in the nuclear industry, nuclear enterprise through the sale of shares can also commercial enterprises is satisfied that the person group, enhanced and expanded the policy itself. Through the introduction of civil-military integration, production, management and technology development, mobilize all social forces to the maximum expansion of investment in the nuclear industry.
3.1. 3 military enterprises produce civilian products (including for the generation of nuclear power plants, reprocessing of nuclear material, and so on) implementation of civilian enterprise operating system, in accordance with the standards imposed appropriate tax and civil enterprises of the same policy to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the local development of nuclear industry.
3.1. 4 treatment and disposal of spent fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste products of reasonable pricing policy.
3.1. 5 more help local development policies of the nuclear industry and nuclear industry equipment manufacturing.
3.1. 6 in Gansu construction supporting industry adapt to the development needs of the nuclear industry, and specialty projects in basic research, technological development and college policies.
3. positive developments in the nuclear industry joint economic and technical cooperation
Gansu large-scale development must take a large opening for the nuclear industry and Alliance, out of the way, core group, in the main development and nuclear construction group, foreign enterprises, joint nuclear scientific and technological research and development collaboration at home and abroad, give full play to the Central, local, enterprises, institutions, and other aspects of the initiative. Importance of nuclear group, in particular nuclear construction group, the domestic science and technology in building local research and development institutions, local and Enterprise-close collaboration with the institutes of the joint interests of the community relations, creative collaboration and joint institutions and mechanisms, really form an open, joint, collaborative advantage, ensuring capable, he talked of the nuclear industry and expand the article.
3. grasp the nuclear industry development countermeasure research, planning and strategy development
Nuclear industry development in the fields of complex must have scientific, rigorous planning and the programme of scientific and feasible countermeasures. Gansu development of nuclear industry specificity and complexity of the issues involved are important, it should be clear thinking ahead into project planning and enrich the project library, improving the fight for the initiative and the clarity of the project. Must now seize the opportunity, organized human research and demonstration projects, planning, strategy, form the decision and put into practice as soon as possible, or may lose the opportunity.
3. the negative social impact of importance to the Elimination of the nuclear industry
Nuclear industry development is one of the greatest challenges facing the public acceptance issues. Should tie in with the construction of the nuclear program, after extensive nuclear science and technology and industry, production, publicity, and to spread knowledge, strengthening public education about the development of nuclear power and reprocessing industry, easy to overestimate the risks of nuclear projects of the public through knowledge dissemination and advocacy work to gradually reduce nuclear security.