Chemical case is chemical production of valuable experience in the practice. Using theory of chemical knowledge, to analyze the chemical case and should be used for teaching and training practices, on improving the quality of teaching, establishing the concept of engineering students, enhance students comprehensive analysis and problem solving skills with good effect. By carefully collect, collate chemical case set, is also raising the level of chemical production and operations management good reference material.
Case studies were conducted on issues related to cases involving deep research analysis and data mining find people, find components with a universality, regularity, and summary, refining them. As a quick and accurate research on the means and methods, are widely used in applied research. With the progress of social development, the need for skilled and increasingly high demands, case analysis is also emerging as important content in a professional and technical learning and professional training.
In chemical theory knowledge of teaching training process in the, will chemical case for analysis, and refined and should for teaching training, not only on help students familiar master chemical theory knowledge and typical device, set students of engineering concept, and training students of innovation consciousness, and improve students integrated analysis and solution problem of ability has good of promote role, and, on improve chemical production operation management level, avoid similar accident occurred also has is good of guidance role. Author of chemical teaching and training work in the years, special attention to the case of chemical collection, collation, combined with the application of multimedia teaching and improve student learning of teaching interest and enthusiasm, initiative and played an active role to improve the quality of teaching and training. This combined with many years of teaching experience, case selection, case analysis and its application in teaching and training are summarized, induction.
1 case selection
Select if case is not appropriate in the case, it will reduce the quality of case teaching and case teaching effect directly, therefore, selection of cases is essential. In the case of options, should be firmly on the following principles.
1.1 the principle of truthfulness
In the chemical teaching, especially in staff training, is often faced with a rich practical experience of students. False case was discovered by students, often causing them to false for false, case teaching process into a game. This way, not only cannot play a role in fostering, training students ability and learning attitude and even the attitude of the students, guide that caused the error. Therefore, after deep investigation of human cases should be, comes from practice, never be subjective assumptions and the fictional fiction, even after the synthesis and processing of cases, we must pay attention to the details of the real. In this way can increase students ‘ interests and their pragmatic attitude, learning to carefully apply the knowledge learned in the process to analyse, review and found that making case teaching is truly up to the consolidation of knowledge, wisdom, the role of training capacity.
1. the principle of universality
Chemical teaching and training most of the object from different positions, and the environment, to make the case has a breadth of applicable objects, requires that the case must have a certain degree of universality, that is, although it was produced in a local case, but also easy or likely to be repeated in other similar places. This may have happened in the case of students around, or trainees in well-known peer, when students in the face of such a case, there will be a real sense of their exploration initiative and enthusiasm will be naturally mobilized to achieve the best teaching effect.
1. principle of typical
Case teaching aims to consolidate student’s theoretical knowledge, enables students to deep understanding of necessity of correct operation and error actions will have consequences, this requires that the case should have direct contact with the theory of knowledge. Similar cases arising in different places and in different environments, incentives may vary, but the implication of the theory is common knowledge. Through the analysis of a particular case, similar to a surname-release event, achieve the effect by analogy, in order to have a larger reference to others, this is the typical case. Cases typical of standard of judgment for teaching, theoretical knowledge is embodied in the case of point is rich, prominent, and is not the case size, and severity of the consequences of the event itself. Therefore, some seemingly normal or attempted incidents also can serve as a good case for teaching and training.
1. General principles
In a theoretical knowledge when applying case teaching, often involving other disciplines; in the context of an enterprise or area, suitable for teaching cases is limited. Therefore, in order to make the case applied to teaching more rich and representative, in case of select and collect, should not stick to the subject, this enterprise and the region. Under the premise of not violating the aforementioned three principles, cases should be as wide range of choice.
2 case analysis and classification
2. analysis of 1 case
Case sort on the collection and analysis, is the basis of case teaching. A complete case studies, should include a description of the case, case theme, causes analysis, prevention measures, and the correct method of operation key content.
Case description is concise and accurate language, narrative processes, phenomena and results of the case. Case studies describe objective and honest as possible to restore the entire event, an evaluation should be taken to avoid both on human behavior. In order to make the case more vivid description, in the case of conditional license, can also be equipped with video, Flash animation and other auxiliary means for case description.
Case topic is through a case description of deep research and excavation, refined case embodied in the core of theoretical knowledge. In the case when refining a topic should not be limited to case events. For example, for due process or cooling cafes heat) medium to a target exception caused by leakage of equipment corrosion in case, when the case topic refinement, should not just stop at that target changes influence on corrosion of the equipment, not covered in this case should also be extended to other indicators of impact of change on the corrosion of equipment, which dates back to the reasons for these changes caused by. So, can they by this case, the participants knowledge of equipment corrosion in the mastery, mastering a more comprehensive approach to prevention measures, and proper operation.
Cause analysis is refined on the basis of the case topic, an analysis of the causes leading to case results. Focus of the analysis is to identify the breach of law theory and method in the case, to avoid “does not operate according to rules” and “mishandled” and other general reference and the “sense of responsibility is not strong,” “lack of predictability” of evaluation, such as language.
Preventive measures are combined with case theme, for the reasons put forward measures to prevent similar incidents. Of specific operational and preventive measures to, avoid using the “management”, “strengthen maintenance” and other general reference.
Correct operation method is on the basis of the foregoing work, raise, process or system of units involved in the case correct operation method of dealing with methods and State. It is not exactly the same in plant operations manuals and procedures, theoretically the need for more emphasis on these methods involved, so as to enhance students understanding of plant operations manuals and adjustment of process parameters in the operating rules, operating procedures, considerations such as understanding, improving the consciousness of their manuals and practice for the operation.
2. classification of cases
When the case teaching, to quickly and accurately selected from a its mighty chemical industry case studies and teaching training associated content case, prior to the collection, collation of cases of reasonable classification is necessary. Generally used for teaching basic case, can be classified by course content. Such as the principle of chemical engineering course, cases can be divided into categories such as fluid transfer, heat transfer, mass transfer, to make the subject more prominent, and can also be further subdivided into specific operating unit and the typical devices of chemical engineering. Case for training, you can categorize by type of factory, such as ammonia, urea and nitrate, the same way, can also be subdivided according to the case topic to the unit processes or typical device. In the actual teaching, can use a combination of the two categories of case set, complement each other.
3 application case
3. application form
Case application teaching in the form of the effect of very large, typically, case is mainly used as a discussion class. In the case of conditional license, you can experiment to restore case events, to deepen students ‘ understanding of case events.
In case application process in the, a is to encourages students independent thinking, let each bit students are to on own and others of analysis published views, through this Exchange, reached complement each other, and mutual promote of effect; II is to boot students variable focus on knowledge for focus on ability, to as possible integrated application by master of knowledge to solution actual problem; three is to attention two-way exchange, in teachers and students of interactive process in the, also prompted teachers more deepened people to thinking, under students of different understanding and found supplementary new of content.
3. application procedures
Case application typically involves the following steps.
3.2.1 case introduction
According to the teaching content of the training of teachers, from case to case set, select the appropriate students. Only at that stage to the student case description and specify some reference material and books, student gathering, query the necessary information.
3.2.2 case analysis
Students through independent investigation within a specified time, thinking, refined case theme, cases of initial formation causes analysis, prevention measures and the proper operation of processing method.
3.2.3 group discussion
According to students ‘ age, job, work experience and other factors, participants were divided into several panel discussions, and case analysis of formation the Group unified. Diversification of the group to consider the Panel members, to increase the chance to express different opinions.
3.2. 4 focus
The groups sent representatives explained the case analysis of this group, acceptance of other team members to ask and explain to extend and deepen the students ‘ level of understanding of the case. Zhihou, teachers can explain the own case studies, and views discussed earlier the case analysis compare, focused discussion.
3.2. 5 Summary of teaching
Teacher on this case and the process of teaching students a comprehensive summary of performance and case teaching in the process of new discoveries, new thinking and new methods, to improve the original case studies.
3. some problems needing attention in application of
One is to simplify the application of case analysis, is equivalent to the common examples of case teaching in teaching. In the application of case analysis in and avoid the case as a simple example of teaching, taught in the classroom. For example is to introduce or illustrate a concept and principle, allows students more easily understand and grasp; and case studies is to train students to use the knowledge, ability to analyze and solve practical problems. As a simple example of teaching case studies, you will lose the meaning of case analysis application.
Application of case analysis is the second expansion, hinder the effective application of other forms of teaching. Case analysis to teaching benefits is easy, but it does not completely replace other forms of teaching. Case studies are based on theoretical knowledge students have mastered a certain, if indiscriminate application to teaching, tend to the trainees at a loss, after the course, students only in the mind of disunity and sporadic experience, not only not to their teaching role, it will hinder the students theoretical knowledge system of learning.
Third, the application of case analysis is easy, so that a case cannot play their interest of case teaching in teaching, enhance the enthusiasm of the participants, teachers ‘ organizations and the ability to control the teaching process at the same time, also put forward higher requirements. If you think the case is one-sided teaching easier, or due to weaknesses in the Organization to make the teaching process is too confusing, you can easily process of teaching a mere formality, case study participants were disorganized, and play out of case teaching effect.
Four is the standardization of case studies, dampened the enthusiasm of the students to explore and participate. Case studies should be used for teaching, in the process of case analysis, even the teachers prepared in advance of case analysis, also does not necessarily is the standard answer. Therefore, in the application of case analysis in the process, teachers should encourage students to use their brains, more innovative thinking, ask a new question, take out the new method; beyond the conclusion of a case, to guide students to deeper thinking, get inspired, and genuine learning. If stressed the results of case studies, standardization of case analysis of the teacher, even in the comments, conclusion, unfair, would dampen enthusiasm of the students to explore and participate in.
Case analysis is a heuristic method of teaching process of linking theory with reality, is on experimental teaching in classroom teaching, teaching methods, such as a necessary complement, is to enhance students analytical and problem-solving skills, effective way to stimulate students ‘ creative potential. In practice, only the methods and, according to teaching people to obtain the best teaching effect.