History of modern Yunnan rural research is broadly divided into 3 stages: during the study of Yunnan’s experiences in rural China; National studies and the study of Yunnan rural times; rural development research period. Compared to rural development and rural development in China, is common in nature and particularity, thought should be in the main premise, actively and proactively seek the establishment of the system, effective, Adaptive theory methods, to answer various questions in rural development.
Over the years, China research focused mainly on rural North China, the Yangtze River Delta region. In these areas is the core area of China’s agricultural development in the history, economy and culture developed, rural research in these areas has a very convenient conditions, research on the one hand various types of literature could get very rich and rural social development in these areas is quite mature, which also provides researchers with a wide variety of research materials. On rural research in these areas there are a considerable number of research results from the analysis of the economic structure, social structure to a specific regime in the countryside, rural, rural organizations, the market investigation on marriage and family, rural education, and so on, the more comprehensive and in-depth view of the situation of rural socio-economic changes and developments in these areas. However, for a remote national provinces, Yunnan rural studies we face and the above areas, even the very different situations in rural areas in the Mainland. Due to the nature of rural ecological, social, cultural and economic development, and the degree of tissue development in rural areas and the mainland there are great differences in the countryside, rural research in Yunnan to face more difficulties, traditional study in rural China have limited experience can only be provided for rural studies, sum up experience and reflection study of Yunnan rural for a deepened understanding of change and development in rural areas in Yunnan have very important significance. Since the beginning of this article on the 30-review for a system of Yunnan rural research, on the basis of involved focus on Yunnan rural research method paradigm of research object of study, research, and discuss core issues.
Yunnan natural ecological complex, remoteness, ethnic large long inland semi-detached relationship with China in its history, compared to other inland provinces, long marginalized socio-economic development of the State. After the opium war, the Qing Government’s policy of seclusion is broken, Western forces began to infiltrate China, due to the special geographic location, external forces are gradually infiltrated the Yunnan, China’s coastal provinces, although the external influence is still very limited, Yunnan also began to slowly into the whole process of social and economic change in China. In fact, the study of Yunnan’s rural history and the history of modern China are closely related. On the study of rural history, we can be broadly divided into 3 stages, the first from the 30 ‘s to the last century before the founding of new China; Second stage from the early around 50 to 80; Third phase from last century 80 ‘s to the present.
One of Yunnan, China rural study experience
Earliest on rural system began in the late 30 ‘s. Upper social contradiction in China plagued during the 20th century, and the growing problem of farmers in rural areas, which caused widespread concern in the intellectual circles and the Government at the time, trying to find the best way to heal, which in the 340 and formed a study on rural areas and farmers in China this century’s first climax. During this period there are two main schools of Chinese rural studies: taking Liang Shuming, Yan Yangchu as representative of “rural construction” and represented by Fei Xiaotong’s academic school . In addition to academics, rural study activities of the civil, this period of national Government also carried out a series of surveys in rural areas. In 1933, the rural revival Committee was established, it is affiliated to the national Government Executive Yuan, the task is to provide the reference framework for developing rural policies of the Executive Yuan, rehabilitation Commission of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Henan, Guangxi, Yunnan, and conducted a special survey. 1934 edited the writing of the Yunnan Provincial Rural investigation is the outcome of the investigation period, investigation of selected Central Yunnan province, Eastern Yunnan and the Kunming, lufeng, South Yunnan, Yuxi, Malone, Kaiyuan, 6 city and County of the 26 villages, 642 villagers conducted aihu survey. Survey content including those in rural areas land distribution, rural plots, rural loans, land tax, rural taxes, education and the political situation in the countryside. Although the investigation is limited to local areas of rural Yunnan, survey content is too much emphasis on the rural economy, but this is the first time in the history of China in the name of the State organs regularly documented the situation of the rural economy, and was the first investigation on rural system of Yunnan, modern methods used for the first time in the research on the rural economy and society.
After the outbreak of the war, the domestic situation is rapidly changing, the University research institutes have inland, due to its special geographical position of Yunnan, brought together many excellent research scholars in China at that time. 1938 Fei Xiaotong home, in Yunnan University Sociology Department teaches, and organization group like-minded of youth scholars established has “‘ age、 Ko” workstation, they in surrounding area carried out large field investigation, cooperation completed has Lu village farmland under, and easy village handicraft under, and jade village agricultural and commercial under, and Bye, Ma. village peasant economy under, and Kun factory labour under, and progenitor shade zhixia under, and mangshi inhabitants of pendulum under, and Chenggong grassroots power structure under, group on Yunnan rural research of basic literature, which Lu village farmland under, and easy village handicraft under, and jade village agricultural and commercial under brings together into Yunnan three village under a book. In the book, Fei Xiaotong’s choice of 3 different types of comparative study on rural communities. Lu village represents the rural community of mainly to agricultural production, handicraft developed village and represents a rural community, jade village and represents a deeply rural communities near the commercial centre town. Fei Xiaotong and his students through careful field surveys show and General characteristics of different types of communities, based on the comparative study of different types of communities, a better understanding of the theoretical understanding of the universal issues such as rural economic system  (P19). Fei Xiaotong’s research on Yunnan rural during this period can be said is his continuation of the study on the early rural. In 1936, Fei Xiaotong’s home town of Jiangsu Wujiang opening chord gongcun of jiangcun economic papers on completion of the investigation, described the South of one rural villages in China’s economic and social life, as well as the villages in the face of modern industry and the world market under the impact of social and cultural changes that occur.
In the three villages of Yunnan, Fei Xiaotong is through a choice of 3 different types of rural communities and comparing jiangcun he studies aimed at understanding and peasants in rural society in China. In fact, due to the special situation of the community and scholars such as Fei Xiaotong, institution-specific research purposes, this period of Yunnan rural research for understanding at that time we have a very limited rural socio-economic conditions. In the rural areas of Yunnan province in the investigation, investigators are then selected several rural areas in the Han population in more developed economies and central area of Yunnan province. In the three villages of Yunnan, Fei Xiaotong’s rural communities selected 3 types of looks more like a typical countryside in mainland China, and do not represent the ecological and socio-cultural and diverse countryside in Yunnan province. However, you should see the value is one of Yunnan’s rural research in the maturing of the application of theoretical methods, especially the forming of Fei Xiaotong’s own community research methods, these methods still apply to our development of rural studies. In addition, even setbacks, rural development is also has been slow to integrate into the processes of change in China’s social development, rural research done for this period, also reflects the rural development and rural development in China of the common.
Second, the national research and rural studies
If the feature is the display of the first phase of the rural study rural social economy in Yunnan and generally common in rural China, then the second phase of the study show that rural society in rural areas of Yunnan uniqueness. After the founding of new China, once again, new social and political situation affecting rural paths of research. Period, the guiding ideology of Marx’s theory of socialism into social science research, along with the establishment of rural grassroots, agrarian revolution to carry out, on the key elements of the on research into rural production relations in the countryside. In the early 1950 of the 20th century sociology is cancelled, disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and Economics in the 30 ‘s and create a study on Chinese rural experience also gave way to the discussion on rural production relations. In Yunnan, 1956-1964 years, working for national recognition, with the democratic reforms, had deep historical and national language of the minority community survey. The breadth and depth of the investigation, was unprecedented, a considerable part of the research content also includes the study of Yunnan rural. For the study of Yunnan ethnic social nature, form a report on the history of minority communities, these investigations are not only related to culture, religion and customs of various ethnic groups, also includes the villages of socio-economic survey of all ethnic groups. Yunnan ethnic large minority population to total population of one-third, the vast majority of ethnic minorities living in remote villages, so understanding and research on rural realities must not ignore the majority of the minority village area of concern. Historically, because of national oppression policies of the ruling elite, Han elite knowledge of ethnic discrimination, few masses of ethnic villages in Yunnan region-related documentation records. After the founding of new China, with the implementation of the equality party and Government policies, such detailed information for the first time we fully understand the majority of rural ethnic regions may in Yunnan.
Sum up, due to the peculiar historical reasons, this period, rural research basic dependent under the context of the national research and study on Yunnan nationalities in this period dominated by the classical theory mode: Yunnan national history was included in the primitive society, slave society, feudal society, capitalist society, and in turn 5 modes of production of the evolution of the socialist society. Accordingly, most of Yunnan rural minority is regarded in the primitive society, slave society to feudal society transition stage, social economy in ethnic rural areas more reflected in the original, the secondary nature of pluralism in Yunnan rural development trend, to some extent superseded by a single linear development pattern, development with its historical tradition in ethnic rural areas were separated. However, you should see this during the discussions on the nature of Yunnan’s ethnic community has deepened our understanding of the rural social complexities, particularities, while several full investigation on Yunnan ethnic village of socio-economic information also becomes important foundation for the next phase of the development of rural studies.
Third, rural development and rural studies
In fact, rural research is very much on the purpose of answering how rural development issues, and research for the purpose of the first two phases are subject to the special historical period. Stage of rural studies, to some extent can be thought of as a service to rural development under the background of Yunnan in China rural study, while the second phase is called serving the ethnic background of Yunnan rural minority areas under investigation. From another aspect, we can also say these two phases of research, more information is provided for future study of Yunnan rural experience, methods, and make appropriate theoretical preparation. After entering in the 1980 of the 20th century, in the new political situation, productivity development stressed that domestic academic focus from “production” to “productivity” of development, appropriate rural economic development and regional studies is receiving increasing attention.
This period of reform and opening up, in the context of economic development, with the restoration and reconstruction of the University and the related disciplines of scientific research institutions, more and more research into the study of local economic development, rural economic development, more and more attention. Early studies mainly rural families to expand economic, development and industrial structure reform. After the 90 ‘s, more research began to focus on specific problems of rural development, such as the rural industrial development, rural markets, transfer of rural surplus labor, farmers and so on, is not only related to this series of economic issues, rural development related to the problem of poverty, environment and ecology, grassroots, national culture, rural development, health, education, women and children, and so on more and more attention to the problem. Different disciplines to focus on rural issues from their perspective, growing rural area of study.
However, it should be noted that although the results of this period, but there are still considerable shortcomings. First, on the theory. Considerable number of studies belonging to policy-oriented research, tend too much empty discussion, lack of theoretical and empirical support. Also part of the study only to experience simple finishing, processing of information, lack of in-depth analysis of the system. In fact, in an earlier discussion to two in the research phase, has already shown considerable maturity of research methods and theory, especially with Fei Xiaotong as Community research methods of the main representatives of the relevant scholars already is forming. In the 560 in the conduct of national surveys, under the guidance of the Marxist theory, investigation is also very strict and closely related to. Later in the mid 1960 of the 20th century, the cultural revolution interrupted the normal path of the development of social sciences in China, these valuable experiences on rural research have been forgotten. After the reform and opening up, and social sciences began redevelopment, but after more than 10 years after the stagnation period, inevitably in the method of knowledge on the continuation of the fault occurred. With the development of socio-economic, in the face of an increasing number of new problems, in the case of traditional experience interruptions, lack of relevant knowledge accumulation, a considerable number of studies can only become the products to meet the short-term situation needs. Therefore, for the study of Yunnan rural, urgent need to strengthen the emphasis on theory method, strengthening the corresponding specifications of the subject. In this process, not only the attention abroad, relevant research experience in other parts of the country, also need to draw on previous experience on rural research.
Secondly, on the subject construction and cooperation. As a specific field of study, research involving a wide range of problems in rural areas. The initial stages, “economic construction as the Center” had considerable influence on the development strategy of academic studies focused too much attention to economic factors. Study on rural economic development occupy most of rural studies, basic occupies a dominant position in the study of Economics in the country. The other hand, a number of other related subjects such as geography, Ethnology, history, political science, environment, adhering to their traditional areas of research, did not actively join the discussion of rural development. With the further deepening of reform, the accelerated socio-economic development, Government and associated scholars have increasingly recognized only focus in the development of the economy are one-sided, especially in rural areas with special cultural ecology and related development issues such as poverty are not only economic factors, other non-economic factors related to factors such as culture, the environment should be taken seriously. Establishment of new development view, making it more comprehensive, systematic understanding of rural development, different subjects are starting to more to join discussions for rural development to: anthropology, Ethnology discussions about national culture and rural development; Discussion on rural development and rural organizations of sociology; Discussions on natural ecological environment science and rural development; And so on. New concept of development that we need to revisit way of rural development. A major feature of rural Yunnan lies in its cultural and ecological diversity. Therefore, the path selection of Yunnan’s rural development should also be diversified, one single subject theories cannot answer the question of how rural development in Yunnan, Yunnan rural research is need to Exchange and cooperation between different disciplines, this would help to expand and enhance our knowledge and ability of the countryside in Yunnan province.
From the late 30 ‘s, the awareness of rural is accompanied by a knowledge of Chinese countryside, this time, Yunnan’s rural development seems to be an annotation of Chinese rural development as a whole. In 560, survey work on Yunnan rural minority region is part of a national policy, grassroots regime construction in new China. As a special background, for rural subjectivity intentionally or unintentionally overlook. As a specific field of study, study was necessary to identify rural regional social and economic development issues of concern, rural research aims to answer the question of how rural development in Yunnan. Therefore, on the historical experience of rural Yunnan main carried out within the framework of the review should be in this. In fact, the subjectivity of rural research purposes is a step in its historical development was established to strengthen and, therefore, can say this is the history of Yunnan rural research brings us enlightenment.
Defined the subjectivity of rural studies, theories, methods, experience of our research on the rural picking would be much clearer. A major feature of the socio-economic development of Yunnan lies in its diversity, and should pay attention to in a previous study of Yunnan rural rich and useful experience. Early on rural land system, and rural industrial of research, interim on national village area relations of discussion, and in recent years on rural economic structure, and population, and national culture of concern, formation has on Yunnan rural research of rich experience, helps we from different of angle, and side to awareness Yunnan rural of development problem, which development forming, and mature of theory, and scientific research method also for we system, and overall awareness Yunnan rural development provides has may. In fact, judging from the overall history of the study on rural, Institute for rural and rural China always coexist with common and difference, on the one hand, we cannot ignore the rural rapid or slow and tortuous or directly into the process of social and economic development in China. The other hand, the same can not ignore the unique aspect of rural development in Yunnan province, it has a complex and diverse nature of the ecological, historical and cultural and economic forms. As far as the study of Yunnan rural, stressed the subjectivity of another layer of significance is that it should be recognized that rural development faced special, complex backgrounds, situations, theoretical models and methods for single experience inability to answer the problems of rural development. Therefore, the researcher should recognize the rural development in rural areas of Yunnan and China’s development of a common and unique, in the main thought of the premise, actively and proactively seek methods, building systems, effective, Adaptive theory, to answer various questions in rural development.
Reflection on study of Yunnan rural experience another important value lies in enlightenment idea of countryside in Yunnan province in the new era of academic researchers and ambition. Since reform and opening up discussions on regional economic development increasingly warm, coastal development along the edge of the developed countries in the early days of reform strategy can be said to be the originator of the theory and practice. However, opening gains far along the edge cannot be compared with coastal open, frontier still means in remote and backward, in fact, this is also generally reflects the position of Yunnan in China’s economic development as a whole. The macro background of view, it should be said that economic reform and opening up 20 years has greatly promoted the rapid development of Yunnan’s economic development, with two major industries in Yunnan province as an example: tobacco and tourism are closely related to the backdrop of national economic development. But on the other hand, Yunnan economy still in the Eastern China and adjacent further widen the gap in developed regions.
Internal view of Yunnan province, regional imbalance in the development, expansion of the more prominent of the gap between urban and rural areas. As a development of the weakest regions in the outlying and backward provinces, Yunnan rural how to respond to these challenges? Also, half a more century yilai, life in Yunnan rural of minority compatriots experience has huge of history social changes, old times and national, and local government uncertainty of relationship was break has, they life increasingly directly to was national, and local political economic forces of impact, and effect, how should or adaptation this series of foreign effect, is in edge of in the closed own, also is actively adaptation changes, this is Yunnan rural especially minority rural area by to faced of huge challenge.
30 in the last century, era of fate in the nation on the verge of peril, a number of outstanding scholars with confidence and enthusiasm to actively look for development of China’s rural roads. Fei Xiaotong as representatives of a number of outstanding scholars to set an example for us, Fei Xiaotong himself in 1938 from the United Kingdom arrived in Kunming, less than half a month deep into remote rural long-term investigation of cadres in Yunnan. In the study of national destiny, embodied by concerns of people living in rural areas, regardless of the return of selfless into moving. 560 with a large number of scholars on the construction of a new China, and went to the most remote of Yunnan ethnic village areas of investigation, their dedication to people moving. As research scholars of Yunnan in Yunnan rural development today, at the same time emphasizes the rural research subject, needs of the older generation also confidence and enthusiasm. Therefore, the review and reflection on the Yunnan Institute for rural research not only emphasized the significance of traditional theoretical method of providing experience also is stressing that the valuable academic research on traditional ideas and ambitions.
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