Mankind since time immemorial in the exploration of their own behavior and consciousness of law, however, on a scientific basis, only more than 100-year history of modern psychology. Psychology is a science study on laws of human mental activity. Germany ebbinghaus said: “psychology has a long past, but only a short history. “Although psychology is a young discipline, but it is full of vitality, its theory and practice of human development and application of great wealth. Today, known as one of the most common application of discipline of psychology, psychology study not only enrich human knowledge, and increase human understanding of itself and its theory, methods and techniques can be directly applied to the social life and promote social development and social harmony.
Human exploration of the psychological phenomenon can be traced back to ancient times. Because the level of productivity is very low, it can only passively respond to natural. No one can resist the terrible forces of nature, and all sorts of inexplicable magic, sense of spiritual people no choice but to be attributed to the gods to worship. Therefore, early psychological thought on human history is the “soul”. In ancient Greece the book on the soul of the philosopher Aristotle is considered the oldest psychology monographs. From ancient began, after medieval, and Renaissance and to 19th century middle, on psychological of exploration and research constantly continues to was, but, in a quite long of years in, this exploration just is is no clear of research purpose, and no clear of research target, and no clear of research thought, and no clear of research method of chaos State Xia for of, and inclusion in philosophy and theology of research in the. Methods of psychological methods it is generally thought of, at that age, philosophy, theology and psychology actually is in a there is no differentiation in the unified State, its content is inclusive on content system of philosophy and theology.
In 1879, Wundt at Leipzig University created the first psychology laboratory in the world, is like other subjects for the first time in the history of psychology as a formal science and research, he became the founder of psychology into a separate discipline. Since then, the psychology of philosophy, theology, medicine and other sciences separated, officially became a truly independent science. Psychology as a discipline to explore mysteries of the soul, reveals human psychological activity of science, which studies human, helping people to understand themselves, play themselves in, realize their own value. Psychology of Wundt founded time believed that psychological task is to structure and content of the analysis of psychological, found that mental element composited with complex internal principles and the concept of law. However, early psychology considers the content represented by Wundt, psychology is a “pure” science, the application is not an issue, but this only lasted for thirty or forty years, starting out of the laboratory of psychology, mass-oriented, service in social life.
First, the application of psychology to the cause of health
In the field of psychology, Freud’s psychoanalytic directly from the start of services in social life, committed to the treatment of mental patients. Since the 20th century, psychology more support biology—psychology—social medicine model and became the theme of human health. People not only on the biological aspects of the person, while also noted as a complete in terms of human psychology, consciousness, and social behavior. In today’s world, people more preventive medicine in advocate, not only consider the impact of natural environment on the human body, also consider the social environment, including the impact of psychological factors on human. Disease used to be part of the Steering Body, process, system in a functional or structural anomalies of the biological concept of a pure and healthy, then only the absence of disease. Under the new concept of medicine, health is: “people not merely absence of disease and weakness, and to have satisfactory fit state of physical, mental and social life. “Cannot reach this State, you can call it a disease or sub health state. Modern health view believes that human suffering, biological, psychological, social, ecological, etc various factors that only humans are natural physiological, psychological, social, in the overall balance of movement in order to achieve true health. Late in the 1970 of the 20th century, Health Psychology became independent of the subject. Study on Health Psychology and work practice closely associated with the issues of human health, or even directly linked to social progress and happiness of the individual, establishment and soon obtained a rapid development. Conscious application of psychological knowledge and technical discussion and resolution on maintaining or promoting human health and the prevention and treatment of somatic disease problem. In modern psychology correcting some bad behavior affect human health or cause disease, especially in the prevention of bad behavior with various diseases plays a special feature, the application of psychological knowledge to improve medical care system, establishment of adequate health care facilities, way to save health care costs and reduce social costs, and make recommendations on relevant health policy. Study on Health Psychology in theory and practical application of the process, application, procedure learning, behavior, health behavior theory and principle of conditioned reflex. In disease prevention, correction of bad behavior, physiological dysfunction of rehabilitation, accident reduction, stress relief, and universal access to education and other aspects of physical exercise and health, were given a more significant results; also on reducing the number of psychosomatic diseases, such as to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer, played an important role. Today in Europe established the European Health Psychology society, Belgium, Federal Germany and the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, and many other countries have established national institutions in health psychology. In the United States, through the joint efforts of health psychologists and members of the public, has been a significant decline in the ratio of young smokers, adult smoking rate fell 12% than they were 20 years ago, which has eased to a certain degree due to smoking died of disease of the acute social problems. Practice shows that health psychology and related disciplines in the collaborative process, will increasingly show their special role of the benefit of mankind.
Second, the application of psychology in economic theory
Since the 20th century, gradually toward the study of Confucian classics in psychology field penetration. First, a lot of psychological principles and behavior research results are applied to economics. Called “psychology and economics” behavioral economics came into being, is being increasingly embraced the concern and attention. Cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology schools of thought, for investigation of human economic behavior economics to provide a sufficient scientific basis. Called “psychology and economics” of behavioral economics, has stripped the traditional economics assumes rational people around glossy coat, advocated to behavior analysis and behavior of real psychological mechanism should be the basis, not based on subjective a priori assume that.
Behavioral economics analysis theory, psychology and economic operation of law and economic sciences combine to identify errors or omissions in the present economic model, which amended the mainstream economics on human rationality, self-interest, perfect information, preference of utility maximization and lack of consistent fundamental assumptions. And unlike traditional economics, research into the psychology of behavior economics object is a person, including human cognition, emotion, behavior, and personality, not just the economy. Behavioral economics stresses, to behavior analysis and behavior of real psychological mechanism should be the basis, not based on subjective a priori assume that, and the psychological mechanism of individual behavior is an individualized process and cannot be replaced by others, so the individual becomes one of the basic characteristics of individual behavior. Behavioral economics advocated using reason instead of the real reason, and is committed to being price, income and other economic variables affecting economic puppets into people full of humanity, makes economics a study the science of human behavior.
Secondly, in the field of marketing, consumer psychology research has been widely applied. Starting from the main consumers, study the behavior of consumers purchase and use of goods and services law; study of consumer attitudes, emotions, tastes and the decision-making process,; research influence consumer behavior in a range of social, personal and institutional variables; study characteristics and consumer products to meet consumer’s response to product characteristics; and the study on status and trends of market demand, targeted development of on-demand customer-oriented product. Psychology makes modern marketing is full of vitality, social production goal of achieving a more targeted.
Third, the psychology application in production and management activities
End of the 20th century, in psychological methods were introduced into industrial production, work study of early as Taylor, Gilbreth and movement analysis of Gilbreth and his wife, and later on the conveyor belt production such as operations research, is a classical work in industrial psychology. Throughout a century of development in psychology, many schools of Psychology have contributed to the theory of industrial psychology. From classical psychophysical method and response time of study Psychology, to signal detectable on the contemporary cognitive psychology, and so on, have had a profound effect on industrial psychology. Perception of gestalt psychology concept emphasizes-and base, in a number of industrial psychology character identification, pattern recognition and clothing are all conditions that must be considered in the design.
Industrial psychology is psychology applied to industrial applications in the field of theory, research on the use of psychological methods and results to address issues arising in the field of industrial or economic. It main research work in the people of behavior law and Psychology Foundation, using psychology research each career of requirements; using quiz to select workers and arrangements work; planning using human of best work method; developed training programme, makes human get most effective of development; decided most fine of work conditions; research most reasonable of management organization; research work motivation, adjustment workers and management personnel between of Kone collaboration. Industrial psychology emphasized that explore the behavior of people at work and have a basic knowledge of the causes of such behaviour, also stressed some of the known knowledge in the practical application of human behavior, to better meet the needs of industrial or economic institutions and the worker.
First, the middle of last century, engineering psychology formation. Working tools claim to be adapted and designed to adapt working tools design human psychological and physiological characteristics, to ensure the best working conditions, so that reliable, operation easily and improved efficiency. Psychology of workers for their hard work, not only in terms of records and accumulate scientific information on the value of outstanding meritorious service, and in the use of psychological mechanism and flow of information and mutual adaptation between the machinery and equipment, ensure that a prerequisite for greater system reliability and efficiency has made outstanding contributions. Cognitive psychology and objective analysis of the results of human mental processes, is applied to solve Automation control system and large defense projects have achieved significant results. As the industry produces a range of innovations, at the same time in the field of science Cybernetics, information theory, bionics and other scientific developments, engineering psychology into the system. Targeted at the human-machine-environment system, study of human behavior in the system, as well as the interaction between man and machine, and environment, making engineering design matches the characteristics of body and mind, so as to improve the efficiency of the system, user security, and to enable people in the system to work efficiently and comfortably. Theoretical basis for cognitive and experimental psychology as engineering psychology. Today, engineering psychology is committed to the expansion of the human-machine system as a human-machine-environment-society of a more comprehensive system.
Second, management psychology is the psychology applied to the analysis of knowledge, instructions, guide management activities in the industrial branch of psychology of the individual and group behavior. Behavioral theories of scientific management is to manage the psychological stages of enlightenment, its Foundation is a group of experts, led by social psychologists, Mayo was the famous “Hawthorne”, proposed the “society” hypothesis. They believed that incentive alone is no guarantee that mobilize the enthusiasm of the workers. Good interpersonal skills, enabling social conditions and is more closely related to productivity. In addition, they also raised the role of informal organization in the group. Modern management psychology main research and organization behavior about of people of individual features, as motivation, and ability, and sexual to,; people of groups features, as groups of classification, and people and organization of mutual role,; leadership behavior features, as leadership style, leadership of assessment and training,; organization theory and organization change, as organization of model, organization change and organization development research,; work life quality research, focused on from improve work environment, work rich of, and expanded of aspects mobilization workers of enthusiasm, improve productivity.
In addition, the branch of modern psychology is gradually increasing, including management, labour psychology, engineering psychology, personnel psychology, and so on. Work environment is for Yu sponsor of security, and health and comfortable, and guarantee production of efficient; work environment is can for physiological Shang of need, workers psychological need is get meet, problem, increasingly get people of concern, people using psychological method implementation work content of rich of and enlargement, reduce simple, and repeat of labor, improve work itself on people of significance, increased workers of satisfaction of, are get has satisfaction of effect. Personnel psychology in improving levels of human motivation, improved training methods, to scientific evaluation and the selection and appointment of the person, and professional design and personnel arrangements, and so on, has played an important role, but also for the science to provide a basis for development of personnel management system.
Four-, and application of psychology in education
Psychology in the late 19th century into the field of education, educational psychology as a separate discipline. Modern Western educational trends tended to education theory in psychology research on the basis of the results, which are prerequisites for promoting educational psychology as an independent discipline. Germany psychologists Herbart on education psychology played a pioneering role. Herbart’s theory in the teaching, teaching education and teaching is divided into two non-education teaching, the former means the cultivation of ethic, moral character, will, and, which refers to impart knowledge, skills, intellectual activity, he considered both educational activities should be based on a psychological theory. Thorndike 1903 publication of the book of psychology of education, school situation to elaborate concepts of learning, which is considered the true beginnings of the modern educational psychology. Including human nature, learning psychology and individual differences and reasons of three parts. He proposed three laws of learning (effect of law, preparing the law, to practice law) and the theory of individual differences, become later the important topic of research in educational psychology.
School of Behaviorism in psychology, gestalt psychology school and the theory of psychoanalysis school had a significant impact on education. Under the influence of Gestalt psychology, education and attention paid to “insight” status in learning, no longer limited to trial and error, stimulus and response of connectionism. Behaviorism theory prompt attention to the study of human behavior in the education sector, attention to the psychological effects of environment on people. Freud’s psychoanalysis of renewed focus on awareness in school education, especially subliminal and subconscious problem. Meanwhile, attention to the role of emotion in education and teaching process, introduction of education and mental health knowledge in the teaching process.
Focused learning early educational psychology psychological discussions of research and study of law, and is mostly focused on the intellectual aspects of the problem. With the increasing emphasis of education on all-round development of people, there is increasing emphasis on ethical behavior, emotional and moral cultivation of aesthetic emotion. 1947, United States psychological society established has on education psychology research for planning of Committee, think education psychology of research task and object should including eight a project: education evaluation and measurement; children development of features; special children and education; about learning psychology of education method; special discipline of learning; learning counselling and psychological health; teachers personnel and contributed learning of teachers behavior; education psychology of method.
Modern education psychology of research General concentrated in: human growth and development, including genetic and environment, and general growth and development, and social and emotional of development, and motivation of basic theory, and wisdom, and sexual to and interest, and individual differences,; learning, including learning of nature, and effect learning of factors, and learning of motivation, and skills, and reasoning and problem solution, and attitude, and special subjects of learning, and training of transfer,; personality and adaptation, including emotional, and students and teachers of psychological health, and special children, and character, and social activities; measurement and evaluation, including measurement of basic principles, and intelligence and sexual to of measurement, and learning of measurement, and adaptation of measurement, and measurement results of application; education psychology of method and technology, including education problem of scientific research, and statistics technology, and for teachers by provides of research method.
One of the trends in the development of modern educational psychology, gradually turned to research and student psychological education process, also of importance to the teaching methods to improve. Study on the high degree of attention to teaching material, teaching method reform in particular on the training of creative ability of students, through the improvement of teaching methods, students ‘ intellectual development, promote the development of creative thinking, has become a popular educational psychology research. Many educational psychologists have made various recommendations for fostering creativity, has carried out many of the creative research on the subject, promoting discovery learning in the teaching, encouraging children’s imagination, curiosity and independence, individuality, and other, are all focused on teaching reforms. For example, a behavioral psychologist Skinner, making reference to others in the past made the program teaching in teaching of machine design. This machine is characterized by students according to their own tempo ability has set itself, determine the progress of the study, timely feedback information from the machine, the machine automatically according to the student’s learning level adjustment problems and the difficulty of learning content. Today computer-based teaching method of self-originated this program teaching machine. Program teaching exercises on a very large impact on teaching methods, over a long period of time, those teaching courseware design based on Operant Conditioning and welcome, timely enhancement of Skinner still proved to be effective in teaching practice and welcomed by most teachers, teaching of their program also influence the preparation of teaching materials. Until now, whether it is in the textbook numbering in the classroom teaching methods, were able to see program teaching of shadow. Another developing trend is more emphasis on research of educational psychology in the teaching of social psychological factors. As the depth of social psychology, many educational psychologists starting from the perspective of social psychology, and the classroom as a community school situated, attention research affecting teaching socio-psychological factors. Application of motivation theory research in social psychology, trying to create some kind of external pressure or unbalanced way, to promote the students have a desire for reform act. People started to attach importance to teaching organization in the social and psychological problems. Rogers claims of psychologists, to establish warm relationship between teachers and students in classroom teaching, which he stressed the use of guide discussion method in teaching. He believes that learning to the development needs of the advanced level of the three basic conditions: first, empathy; second, unconditional positive attention; three is harmony or in good faith. Introduction of educational theory and practice of psychological science, theory of education not only take on a new look, more important is a substantive step forward toward a people-centred education goals.
All in all, into the 20th century, psychological science has achieved rapid development, it is proved to the world that not only is a young science, is a very broad application applied science. In addition to these areas, in virtually any area of social and economic activities, people have started to inject ideas and methods of psychological science. Such as environment psychology research environment and people of psychological and behavior Zhijian relationship; movement psychology research people in engaged in sports Shi of psychological features and law, research people participate in various movement project Shi, in character, and ability and temperament aspects of features and the sports on personality features of effect; research sports teaching training process and movement race in the about personnel of psychological features, as movement skills formation of psychological features,.
Psychology research not only contribute to the richness of human knowledge, and increase human understanding of itself and its theory, methods and techniques can be directly applied to the social life and promote social development and social harmony. More than a century, is the vitality of the psychology discipline development. UNESCO as one of the 21st century construction of key development disciplines of psychology, it was felt that “the 21st century is the century of Psychology”. Psychology can be focused on developing discipline in the construction of the new century, mainly due to its wide range of applications involving all areas of human activity, applied psychology has produced good social benefits. Contribute to different areas of psychology, with important theoretical significance and practical value, marking it gradually became a frontier and modern science development combined with one of the disciplines most closely, and for one of the most widely used discipline of modern human life.
 the Steering Committee for the teaching of psychology. Strategic research report on the development of psychology. Chinese education. 2006, (5).
 Zhang Houcan. Understanding psychology development framework. China book business report. 2008-10-10.