Sound legal system and very high level of organization of peasant Association, Japan agricultural products wholesale market efficiency offer strong support. And Japan similar to the scale of China’s agricultural producers are generally small, agricultural products logistics still need to be done through a wholesale market. Japan wholesale market for agricultural products on the successful experience we had very good inspiration and reference.
Due to geographical characteristics and historical reasons, Japan and the scale of China’s agricultural producers generally are relatively small, mainly via wholesale markets of agricultural products logistics completed. As the largest hub of channels and logistics of agricultural products, wholesale market can meet the seller and expand the scale of distribution and transaction space, demand for transaction cost savings, agricultural production is small scale and large market, great circulation objective contradiction between places. Internationally, the Japan wholesale markets for agricultural development have been recognized, in agricultural production has many similarities with China, its successful experience worthy of our study and reference.
First, Japan logistics of agricultural products wholesale market features a sound management system is a prerequisite for guarantee the efficiency of logistics and administrative efficiency. Japan after nearly a century of development, formed from the production of agricultural products only to set theory and institutional circulation.
To sum up, Japan agricultural products wholesale market has the following characteristics:
1. have a sound legal and regulatory support.
Laws to regulate the market construction and management, developed in an open, fair and just market environment, is Japan guarantee for the success of the wholesale markets of agricultural products. As early as 1921, Japan released the first part of the Central wholesale market law, opening of the Central wholesale market, management, transaction into the orbit of rule of law, and in 1923 opened Japan’s first Central wholesale markets of agricultural products. With the economic development and increasing of wholesale market position, Japan and in 1971 had revised the law, the Central wholesale market law to the wholesale market law, the local wholesale market but also into the orbit of rule of law, further established the logistics of agricultural products wholesale market circulation status. Once every 5 years later, local governments and departments concerned, in accordance with this law, formulate local laws and regulations and market rules. (1) after several amendments of the wholesale market law more strictly the principles of trade, make trading more of public, open, fair, very few violations occurred.
In addition, standardized management system also ensures the efficiency of the administrative functions of play. Japan’s production of agricultural products processing, safety and health management, postpartum, listing marketing, retail consumption, production and circulation of all aspects of administrative functions, unified centralized on agricultural Administration Department:
At the national level by circulation Council responsible for the administration of circulation of agricultural products, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, in the province, and city level by the local circulation is responsible for the exercise of the functions of the administrative departments of agriculture and forestry.
2. There is a very high level of organization of farmers ‘ associations.
Japan legal provisions must be run by the Government Central wholesale market, but local wholesale market run by the farmers ‘ society, companies and other corporate bodies.
Peasant Association is to organize Japan farmers into the circulation of key organizations, Japan agricultural association is based on the 1974 Congress passed the law on agricultural cooperative organizations, organized jointly by the farmers ‘ voluntary economic organizations of the masses, is a powerful economic force, non-government official help farmers economic organisations throughout the country. In every link of the circulation of agricultural products, such as a set of formation of the wholesale market and distribution center, logistics, business flow, information flow in organizations and played an irreplaceable role in organizations such as the check. Grass-roots peasant Association are typically built by the fair trade of agricultural products, the peasant Association members in charge of sales species, picking, packing, or refrigeration and organizations listed. Currently, the national agricultural association system a total of nearly 3,000 terms set. In addition, the agricultural association system also has the national transport Federation, consists of numerous transport organizations, ensuring the preservation degrees to quickly to the wholesale market for agricultural products. (2), 3. the efficient operation of the mechanism of competition.
For trading participants of wholesale markets have specific regulations and requirements, especially as a trading principal producers, wholesalers, retailers, have strict eligibility to admission to trading. In order to ensure competitive fitness, agent of each entry of wholesale market for wholesalers, has a strict limit on the number of intermediate wholesalers. In Japan, usually each agents were controlled in 2~6 persons in the wholesale market. (3) these shall abide by the rules, honesty, strength and credibility, to a foothold in the market, to win the confidence of producers, so that it can be stabilized, multiple channels, multiple cultivars for commissioned sales sources. In addition, used mainly on the price formation of auctions, wholesalers or brokers to participate in the sale of competitive bidding, to the highest bidder of buying a particular article.
Fierce competition makes a few powerful, well-managed wholesaler into wholesale company, while others are in fierce competition is eliminated.
4. There are strict market access system of agricultural products.
Supply of fresh produce, directly related to food safety and quality of national life. Japan’s main approach in this area include: from the hierarchy starting with packaging, establish a system of agricultural origin dates back; the quality certification of agricultural products, establishing agricultural brand and reputation through strengthening the management of production process, rapid detection and detection of chemical analysis on the combination of a series of tests to ensure food security; responsibilities clearly, by management system, quality inspection system from financial investment.
5. There is a modern trading methods and means.
Auction through the use of modern electronic devices, quickly and accurately handle loans settlement. In Japan, both buyers and sellers to be entrusted to a third party payment settlement business. Generally speaking, buyers to pay with a bank to wholesalers in 3-7 days, wholesalers through bank payment to the supplier in 1-4 days, so as to complete the checkout process.
Second, the Japan wholesale markets for agricultural development enlightenment and lessons.
Started in China’s agricultural products wholesale market in the mid 1980 of the 20th century, after more than 20 years of development, has been basically established centered on the wholesale market, by urban and rural markets, supermarkets and other retail outlets for the agricultural products market system based. Currently agricultural products wholesale market to more than 4,500 enterprises, carries about 70% of the tasks of agricultural products circulation of goods. (4) at present, China wholesale market generally fall into two categories: one built by the trade and industry or farmers ‘ group; the other is approved after the Government formally established. National wholesale market, a specification but lack of vitality and thus does not meet the expected economic benefits; spontaneously formed in the city’s wholesale markets, poor vigor and normal, both the need for further development and improvement. Throughout Japan course of development of agricultural products wholesale market, its efficient functioning depends mainly on the strong policy support and improve the regulatory system. Therefore, drawing Japan experience, in my view, should focus on the following areas to perfect China’s agricultural products wholesale market.
1. accelerate the construction of law system of Chinese agricultural products wholesale market.
To establish the logistics of agricultural products mainly in the wholesale market circulation status, specification creation, management and operation of the wholesale market system. Level of organization and management of wholesale markets for agricultural products in China are relatively low standardized, it is difficult to meet the development needs of the market economy, one of the most important reason is that the wholesale market law construction of serious lag. Due to the lack of market regulations, many practical problems difficult to solve. In addition, the administration system of China’s existing market lags, unknown scope of responsibilities and rights relevant functional departments, overlapping functions, makes on the wholesale market management, policies are not uniform, not on standard, failing to prevarication, administrative inefficiencies.
Therefore, drawing Japan experience of establishing wholesale market regulatory system, should develop an agricultural products wholesale market law as soon as possible, to ensure that the standard operation of the wholesale market for agricultural products, achieve the objective of fairness, impartiality, efficiency and role as a hub for agricultural products logistics wholesale market can bring into full play.
2. cultivate scale operation of modern wholesaler, activate the wholesale market for agricultural products.
At present, China wholesale market management main body is the standardization of plan formation in the system of purchase and sale of State companies and businesses, and spontaneously formed in the city’s wholesale markets, entry of any transaction subject to transactions. Real dealers or independent, self-financed, wholesale of a certain size without cultivating well. Agricultural products wholesale market in the future should not be the collection of individual booths, instead, is a collection of wholesale enterprises. Inevitability of market competition set, first in the law of the fittest on operators of scale, competition will result in many small scale operations are not supported out of the market, wholesale trade will eventually be concentrated and scale of operation. Therefore, while Government and wholesale market managers to boot existing operating main in accordance with the modern circulation way conversion operating industry State, big, and do u, and do strong, towards modern enterprise direction development; on the, to has plan to introduced large producers, and large wholesalers, and large agents admission operating, especially those in international and domestic are enjoyed is high popularity of brand enterprise, to actively created conditions attract they market, through they of standardization operating led wholesale market overall quality of improve.
3. fostering agricultural products circulation of an intermediary organization, improving the level of farmers ‘ participation in the flow of the organization.
Government actively guide and support the development of agricultural intermediary organization, the brokers, in particular from agricultural producers should pay attention to cultivating mature intermediaries and brokers. Through the establishment of a certain size and strength of intermediaries and brokers of agricultural products, improving the ability of fair trade agricultural products wholesale market, driving on the scale of production, processing and circulation of agricultural products. Farmers ‘ organizations on the issue of market access, due to various restrictions, always without substantive progress in all agricultural Association organized around much emphasis in the production of agricultural products, truly organized farmers market, for agricultural marketing organization numbered. Dispersed to participate in the market circulation of agricultural products, increased logistics and transaction costs on the one hand, cause diseconomies; on the other hand, lack of integration between farmers, significantly weakened the bargaining power of the, it is difficult to defend their interests. Currently, countries solve “three rural” problem, the core of which is to increase the income of farmers, farmers ‘ income level of the main agricultural products wholesale market is the decision places. Breeding intermediary organizations of agricultural products circulation, improving farmers ‘ participation in the flow of the level of organization, is conducive not only to the farmers, and that can stimulate structural adjustment of agriculture in China, promote the establishment of a new mode of distribution of agricultural products. Japan agricultural association and the United States and EC national sales cooperative development have fully proved this point.
4. the auction system actively and steadily implemented, improve the agricultural price formation mechanism.
Auction system is more universal application of international norms on the wholesale market price mechanism. Japan’s Central and local wholesale market is dominated by auction. Purchased through a buyer’s bid, make the price formation process open and transparent, can significantly improve the efficiency of distributed transmission of information, conducive to the rational trading decisions. In addition, the auction could make the same product sold the highest price. The buyer bid bidding in public decision making for a short time, was based on the constraints of operating efficiency and the expected profit, which is in line with resource optimal allocation principle, in favour of the profit-split a fair, open. However, China wholesale market as trading main business is small, large, numerous and liquidity transactions distributed features, makes the auction system and developmental constraints. Therefore, forcing large wholesaler of organizations on the one hand, to expand the deal size; on the other hand to promote the development of wholesale trade of Agency, to improve the trading organization, specialization, to provide good conditions for development of auction system.
5. the implementation of quality and safety market access system, guarantee quality and safety of agricultural products.
To implement the market access of agricultural products quality safety system, safeguard the interests of producers and consumers. Whole-process monitoring and traceability system through the establishment of agricultural product logistics, for agricultural producers, consumers and regulators to provide a means of scientific management of agricultural products and tools.
In addition, the Government should implement the qualification certification of agricultural products wholesale market subject, trading body bear the obligation to guarantee the operating safety of agricultural products harmless, if problems appear, cancel qualification, and in accordance with the relevant legal action in its responsibilities. Establishing agricultural product logistics credibility assurance system, the implementation of agricultural product supplier, underwriter and retailers, for the record, poor record system joint responsibility for reporting systems and safety of agricultural products. Through the means of agricultural products quality supervision and management system implementation, ensuring quality and safety of agricultural products.
(1) macro in mountain cities. Japan agricultural products wholesale market model [j]. China, 2004, (09).
(2) Liu Wenjie, Wei Heng, the experience and enlightenment of foreign agricultural products logistics [j]. scientific and technical information of China, 2005, (24).
(3) within the River. Japan wholesale market trading rules seminars [j]. reference, 2004, (02).
(4) Cen Jianglong. The application of modern logistics management to promote the circulation of agricultural products [j]. Journal of Southwest University for nationalities (Humanities and social sciences Edition), 2005, (07).