The story of China shows more tokens of independence than any Asian culture, the Chinese village has not suffered the effects of big attacks and big part of his culture, like the writing system and numerous his art facets, have hardly varied in 3000 years old. Only in recent dates he has begun one to have scientific knowledge of the prehistory Chinese, from the archaeological digs initiated into the decade of the twenties.
The first inhabitants of Pebble of that news has one set one in the basin of the Yellow river, this zone, that by himself is a small part of her current Chinese, he finds separated from the way similar to what survives in our days world rest. He is more than probable than most of the pastoral villages of the prehistory that learned the cultivation technique saw one taken in one of others by natural barriers as mountains and deserts, with all this, the Chinese isolation can not you will explain only by these reasons.
During year thousands before they appeared kings’ first dynasties, nomadic villages had crossed over Chinese habitat, flatnesses and the walls, by it he is probable that some knowledges and civilization practices arrived at Chinese coming from oriental half societies.
China, the second biggest nation of the world, has a smooth surface of 11,418,174 km2 (included Mongolia.) China is surpassed by Russia in size terms only and Europe and Oceania is bigger than all. Area of all the world occupies a fourth part of the territorial extension of Asia and approximately a twelfth part of that.
The limits of the old China were: North the Gobi Desert and Mongolia; south the Sea of Chinese and the Jungles of Indochina, the east the Yellow Sea and the Sea Chinese and to the west, the mountains of the Tibet and the Turquestán.
The rivers that cross to the China are: The Ho Hoang (Yellow river) and the Yang one Kiang (Blue river), these two rivers are born in the mountains of the Tibet and end in the Yellow Sea. The Ho Hoang, is of very irregular course and his extension can not compare that of the Yang one Kiang, because this has 5000km length and his exit has 500km navigational, with a width of almost 35km.
The rivers of China have divided this in different regions, but the culture has developed one next to the waterway banks. By the country extension the climates are very changeable and by so his agriculture, as well as his fauna, they were also of a big diversity, the rice constituted, by her fertility of his floor, the main food element.
In this fertile, suitable to the agriculture floor territory, (rice cultivations, mulberries, sugar cane; tea; wheat; miners (locations of copper, gold, iron and lead,) set the Chinese, corresponding to the Mongolian, salient cheekbones, oblique eyes, black and straight hair, and yellow complexion mas or minus race village and so on) and to the labours.
As one he knows in Chinese, where they located one was the rests of the Man of Beijing or pekinensis to which he calculates them an age sinanthropus, precisely of close to half million of years, and one he considers himself contemporary of the most primitive inferior corresponding races to the paleolithic one, it is known that the man of Beijing knew that fire, was a hunter and made of stone his knives, his hammers and his scrapers.
According to the tradition, the Chinese village was originated in the Yellow river valley. The legends it talk about a creator, P’an Ku, to which a terrestrial celestial, series of sovereign and humans happened. The archaeological tests are scarce, though Homo Erectus rests were found close to Beijing, who date of 460.000 year ago. There reliable tests of the existence of two cultures with ceramic, are Yangshao culture (3950 to 1700 to. C.) And Longshan culture (2000 to 1850 to. C.).
The primitive dynasties:
The tradition says that the Xia (1994 to 1766 to. C.) The hereditary Chinese first dynasty that only disappeared when his last ruler was expelled because of the tyrannical power that practiced envelope, were his village. However, there are not archaeological rests that confirm this story; and the first dynasty of which there are historical evidences is the Shang. The last monarch Shang, a cruel and dissolute tyrant, was expelled by an energetic Zhou from a state in the valley of the Wei river.
The Shang dynasty (1766 to 1027 to. C.):
The Shang dynasty governed in the territory that occupy Hubei Shandong, Henan current provinces, and the northern part of Anhui, in the centre and north of China. The capital, from around the 1384 to. St. in in front, north of Henan was situated in Anyang close to the border. The economy was based on the agriculture; I grew wheat, barley and possibly rice. Also they take cared of silkworms, and they raised pigs, dogs, sheep and oxen. One tools which indicates the knowledge of the metallurgy and the handicraft existence has found recipients of bronze, weapons and others. Society created by the Shang was aristocratic. The king was to the front, that chaired a military nobility and elected the territorial rulers who were obliged to help his military companies. Between this aristocratic class and the plebeian ones there was a cultivated priestly stratum that dealt with government’s documents and I was responsible for the divination. The Shang You, the Gentleman in the High adored to his ancestors and to a gods’ crowd, the main ones of which I was known as Shang.
The Shang that appears in the Chinese traditional stories dynasty fall story follows the Xia defection’s legendary model. The last monarch Shang, a cruel and dissolute tyrant, was expelled by an energetic Zhou from a state in the valley of the Wei river. Situated in the northwestern fringes of the Shang control, the Zhou culture was a synthesis of the basic elements of the Shang civilization and certain martial traditions characteristic of the western northern and not Chinese villages.
The Zhou dynasty (1122 to 256 to. C.):
During this period the Chinese civilization went extending northwards, occupying the Yang river valley gradually one Kiang. The wide expansion by this territory and the primitive terrestrial communication state made impossible that the Zhou practiced a straight control on all the region; they delegated authority to vassals, each one of which a walled city and his surrounding territory governed by the general envelope therefore. The hierarchy of these feudal kind states was headed by the gentleman, charge that was hereditary; the warlike class was below him and in the social base the peasants and domestic slaves were. With the time, these states vassals were one doing each time more autonomous.
Zhou society was organized around the agricultural production. Earth was divided ideally into square extensions each one of which subdivided one in nine lots that formed a space with equilateral triangle shape. The eight outer lots were allocated to eight families peasants, who joined his efforts and resources to cultivate the central lot governing class property. It is not clear which end this earth distribution system was used but the posterior dynasties thought that it was the fairest way of dividing earth until.
The religious practices went together the hierarchical social system. The Zhou believed in the power that emanated from the Sky, that authorized the kings’ power; these did sacrifices to the Gentleman in the High, called now Tian (Cielo) and to his ancestors. The state gentleman did sacrifices to local nature and to agricultural deities, as well as to his ancestors. The individual families also offered sacrifices to his ancestors to avoid adversities and calamities.
The eastern Zhou:
The kings Zhou were able to keep an effective control on his controls until finally, in the 770 to. st., any of them states rebeled one and along with northern invading nomads they expelled to the Zhou from his capital, close to the current Xi’an. With posteriority, the Zhou set a new capital eastwards, in Luoyang. Though they were more safe from the barbarians’ attacks, now the eastern Zhou could not already practice a big authority political or military on the states vassals, many of which had grown until being more powerful than the central power Zhou. However, as celestial order guards, the Zhou continued the practice of confirming the right from the new gentlemen to govern on his earths and they remained as commanders in chief until the a.C 3rd century therefore. For the 8th century to the III to. St. an economic fast growth and a social deep change took place in the frame of an extreme political instability and an almost incessant war state. During these years China he entered in age of the iron; the iron thrown by oxen plow, together with more perfected technicians than irrigated land, they led to get better harvests, that in his turn, kept the constant growth demographic, that was accompanied by the appearance of a new type of marketers and traders. The communications by the progressive use of the horse improved one as animal of transport.
The economic integration allowed the rulers to practice the control on bigger extensions of territory. The states situated in the borders outsides of the Chinese cultural zone expanded one to his not Chinese, least advanced neighbour, coast and when expanding he stimulated and one his own culture diversified when acquiring cultural elements of the outer civilizations. For example, by acculturation of the north-western not Chinese cultures, the region borderers Chineses adopted the use of mounted cavalry’s units for the first time. For the China’s northern flatness, states the expansion meant an aggression against other political organizations who shared the same basic civilization, and the cultural uniformity between the states tended to promote the cultural stagnation. About the 6th century to. St. seven powerful states besieged to smaller and relatively weak that of the northern flatness of Chinese.
With the fall of political authority of the Zhou dynasty and the peripheral powerful state appearance, the interstate relations became each time more unstable. During the 7th centuries and VI a.C., short stability periods got one when organizing interstate alliances under the hegemony of the strongest member. However, about the 5th century to. St. the alliance system was unsustainable and the Zhou Chinese ended in the named Kingdom Combatants period (481-221 to. C.)Been characterized by the anarchy.
The Qin dynasty (221-206 to C.):
In the 221 to. st., the king of Qin one Qin Shi Huangdi autoproclamó, or first Qin dynasty emperor. The name “China” derives from this dynasty.
With the help of a legalistic minister, Li If, the emperor unified the mosaic of feudal states in an administratively centralized and culturally unified empire. They abolished the hereditary aristocracies and his territories were divided in provinces governed by bureaucrats named by the emperor. The capital of Qin, close to Xi’an current city, turned into the first Imperial Pebble headquarter. A writing system adopted one and his use became compulsory in all the Empire. To promote the internal commerce and the economic integration, the Qin unified the weights and measurements and the coin minting. The private earth property was adopted and they applied laws and taxes with equality. The cultural uniformity searching led to the Qin to not legalize a lot of philosophical any schools that there was flourished at the end of the last period Zhou. He gave the official approval to the legalistic ones and in the 213 only to. St. the books of all the other schools except for the copies that kept one in the library burnt Imperial Qin.
The first emperor also tried to extend China’s outer borders. In the south his armies went towards the delta of the Red river what in today is Vietnam. In the southwest his control extended to include most of the current provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan. In the northwest his conquests reached Lanzhou, in Gansu current province and the northeast, a sector of what today is Korea, admitted the Qin sovereignty. The Chinese civilization centre, however, remained in the Huang valley I Have. Besides the unification and Empire expansion, the most known achievement of the Qin dynasty was the Chinese Big Wall ending.
The economic and human the foreign conquests of the Qin and the construction of the Big Wall and other public works cost was huge. The always growing weight of the taxes, the military service and the forced works created a deep resentment against the Qin dynasty between the popular types of the Empire. Besides, the intellectual classes were offended by governmental thought control politics, in special her burns of books. Qin Shi Huangdi successor fell down under the influence of an astute palace eunuch. He followed a fight for the power, mutilating the central administration and the indignant village got up in a revolt.
Them there Are (206 to. St. to 9 d. C.):
Of the turmoils and state of war that marked last years of the dynasty Qin, he emphasized a humble origin leader, Liu Bang. He crushed other suitors to the throne and he proclaimed yes same emperor in the 206 a.C. The dynasty they Have by him founded Imperial Era would be the most lasting of her. Them Have they constituted one on the unified base that had let the Qin, modifying politics that had driven to suderrocamiento. Onerous laws were hung, the taxes reduced one appreciably and a becoming politics of the commerce that allowed the economic recovery was adopted. Liu Bang granted hereditary kingdoms to some of his allies and relatives, but towards mediate of the a.C 2nd century in principle. Most of these kingdoms had been reintegrated and all the Chinese territory was under the their Empire jurisdiction almost they Have.
One of the most important contributions of this dynasty was the Confucianism establishment as official ideology; however, in an attempt by providing a complete ideology to the Empire, them there Are they added to the Confucianism ideas of other philosophical a lot of schools and they used popular superstitions to increment Confucius’s teachings. In the administrative functioning inherited from the Qin, the emperors Han followed the Confucian principle of it electing the men on the base from the merit more than by his birth, being elected the most highly-skilled by written examinations. At the end of the a.C 2nd century. An imperial university in which one the future employees or Mandarins formed was one founded on the five Confucian school classics.
The primitive ones Have they reached the zenith of his power under the emperor Wudi (he reigned from the 140 at 87 to. C.). All the territory that today includes China went on to be under imperial power, though a lot of regions, in special to the south of the river Yangzi Jiang, were not assimilated totally almost. Chinese authority set one in the south of Manchuria and north of Korea. In the west, the armies Have they fought against a known tribe as the xiongnu, that probably were related with the Huns and penetrated into the current territory of Kazakhstan. In the south, Hainan island passed to be short control they Have and colonies around the Xi Jiang delta, in Annam and in Korea set one.
The emperor’s Wudi political expansionists consumed the economic overages that had gone one accumulating during his predecessors’ administrations and the legalistic politics restoring was necessary to replace the cofferses of the State. One lifted the taxes, they reappeared the state monopolies and the coin devaluated one. The penuries that the peasants suffered were seen aggravated by the demographic growth which provoked the size reduction of the individual lots at a moment by which the taxes were incremented. During the 1st century to. st., the conditions deteriorated still more more. In several occasions the throne was inherited by princes in childlike age whose mothers often completed responsibilities of government with unqualified members of his own family. The factions and the incompetence weakened imperial government. Big families landowners of the province challenged authorities that collected central government’s taxes and acquired a privilege species for the tax exemption, what reduced government’s income and encumbranced the peasants hard. The agrarian raisings and the banditry reflected the popular discontented.
Economic and social organization:
In the principle the Chineses’ organization was based on the agriculture but the industries were created subsequently. Between them they can mention that of the metallurgy, especially the bronze, because the iron was used to the armory in periods very close to Christ. Other important industries of this culture, they were the porcelain and the silk, the product originality made the Chineses to have from very remote periods a big commerce, that arrived to lengthen until the Mediterranean world.
As for the social organization and politics of China only accurate data are known from the dynasty Chou, though the territorial split of the country was one so f icticia, so the way in which the territory was splitted was basing on prince feudalism or manors. They were the Tsing who set the absolutism, but government’s system did not last a lot, because them Have they returned the feudal old system.
The social classes in China were built-in: The first by an aristocracy that dominated the political and religious functions, the second, by the employees of the state or bureaucracy that degenerated in a routine mechanics; and the third class was constituted by craftsmen and peasants. That a village as that of China, as invaded by terrific tribes, had to count on a very pronounced slavery and therefore, this organization could not keep because of the mentioned attacks indefinitely is unquestionable
Religion and philosophy:
The religion freedom is a citizen’s of the Republic of China constitutional law. There is more than 11 million religious believers in that area of Taiwan according to the Ministry of the Interior. As a whole, he is more than 16.000 temples and churches dispersed in the region, serving the spiritual needs of the 21,4 million residents.
Polytheistic and sincrética, in Chinese society dominates the Taoism and the Buddhism, in spite of the fact that each religion postulates seemingly joins independent doctrine, some of them can not differentiate strictly. For example, Matsu, the Sea Goddess, a folkloric deity of Taiwan; and Kuanyin, the Buddhist goddess of the Mercy, adore one sometimes in the same temple. This reveals the special character of the Chinese religious perspective that can adjust seemingly contradictory beliefs simultaneously.
As almost all over the villages primitive, the first religion of the China was the naturalist that is, the adoration towards the stranger and the force that on the man the natural phenomena, but the Chineses can have related the fellow conduct to the universe phenomena. In summary, they depended on the human acts and on the natural forces; for example, the ray that burnt a house, was his moradores conduct consequence. The second religion in the China was that of Tse that is that of the reason founded on the rationalist doctrines of the Tao Lao.
From year 770 to the 221 period of the Zhou dynasty of the East that includes period of Spring and Autumn, as well as to that was, before our of the Kingdoms Combatants, the monopoly that had the nobility the culture broke one because of the social lengthy shock gradually. This situation started from this dynasty. But, he developed the individual teaching practice.
In last years of period of Spring and Autumn; Confucius; thinker; period politician and pedagogue, teaching with particular interest emphasized her. Later, in Kingdom period Combatants, with the appearance of ideological numerous other schools, a period of competence between them rose. In the midde of east last period was known a literary new style called “Elegies of Chu” and that reflected period.
Confucius was a wise person of national fame in the Chinese story. However, his name, his doctrine and his influence are not unknown for the world maybe completely. Confucius called Kong Qiu, known also as Kong Zhongni. He was born in 551 before ours was and died in 479 before ours was. His homeland is Shandong current Qufu province, district. His ancestors were big noble Song Kingdom pro-slaveries. His great-grandfather, by the political failure, escaped to the Kingdom Lu. In his father’s time, the family had already decayed. By this reason, Confucius, when it was young, worked as storekeeper and shepherd. Later, he lived during long private education time. It is said that he had three thousand followers, of which 72 were outstanding.
In his senility, he started to devote one to compile books in the same kingdom. Spring Annals and Autumn wrote the book and Li and Him revised, classical works of China. There are other five works that are estimated as canons by the Confucian school. The work Spring Annals and Autumn is the oldest chronicle that keeps very stored so far, and one practised huge influence on the posterior historical works as the country.
After Confucius’s death, his followers compiled his sentences in the Analectas in which activities of Confucius in particular, search one, book, his words and his viewpoints on the philosophy and politics. Activities of Confucius in teaching and his travels by several kingdoms reflected in certain grade the wish of those who did not have nobility any titles and they wanted to take part in politics. These people set up a nascent social force as period shock middle. Confucius said: “Who studies either, will arrive at be employee.” This proves that the his teaching object was to make of his followers men in conditions of taking part in politics.
Pointing out that Confucius’s teaching was opposite to the official of the his period noblemen goes. When commenting envelope nature humanises, Confucius stated that “all the men have same nature,” what was an objection to the pro-slavery conception according to which the hierarchy was congenital.
Confucius gave priority to the benevolence, taking her as her regulates virtue ideal, but I considered that his benevolence was a love determined by the close and different relations, the hierarchies, the richness or the poverty. For Confucius, only the gentlemen were in conditions of being indulgent, whereas the humble ones could not be more than the white than the benevolence application.
In the problem on the rites and the benevolence, Confucius did not insist in the new content to deny the deciduous way, but he persisted in correcting the old content with the deciduous way. In spite of the fact that Confucius’s activities reflected certain trend progressive, in order to you count, they were good for defending the pro-slavery nobility interests and they could not liberate of the old system’s yoke.
But, in the politician, Confucius was a conservative and went against the historical current of his period. The same knew even that his ideas could not be realized, but I did not want to leave them. Nevertheless, during the feudal posterior dynasties in China, the dominant classes took advantage of some Confucius’s viewpoints.
Taoism and Confucianism:
Tse whose name wants to say the old wise person, Lao was born, according to the tradition, in the part south of his country l year of 694 to. st., in an environment peasant. A Chou prince’s archivist was applied to the studies. His reflection product was the religious philosophical system who knows one with the Taoism contained in his book Tao name, one king, in which holds that the creative and eternal all thing force is Tao that arranged all the nature things at the same time. The men must feel part of that same force, of which they must think to obtain the eternal holiness.
Lao Tse showed also that to reach happiness one and the passions, and that have to practice one certain virtues, like that of avoiding the hypocrisy, the lie and war must dominate the wishes; must practice the honesty, the justice and the piety.
According to a legend being already very elder, he went out from Pebble set up in a buffalo and he never returned his country. In posterior years, some of his followers him managed to deify and Taoists formed monasteries even.
Time later, when the political and social decadence was bigger in the country, Confucius’s figure rises. He studied Lao Tse ideas and he tried to form a moral doctrine that based on her, adapted one to the way, of being of the Chinese village.
The Confucianism tried to proclaim the respect feelings to the traditions and to the elders, the deads’ cult, maintenance of the affections in the family and charity exercise. He thought that the rulers should be fair and wise, and his citizens should obey and respect them, so that he could keep the peace, the well being and safety in society. Everything his mulberry tree system resulted in his four books or king, formed by the questions and answers of the teacher and of his followers.
The Chinese calligraphy art:
The Chinese calligraphy is a strange and exotic flower in the story of the civilization and a jewel unexampled in the oriental culture. In his graphic aspect, one her can compare with the painting by his capacity to wake up emotions by the rich variety of his ways and features. As abstractionism, they are shown by all his purity musical rate and harmony. Added to a practical part everything: It is a writing shape.
The writing constitutes the palpable talked language representation. In the Chinese characters we can set six classes:
Hsiang hsing, straight graphic representation
Chih shih, symbolic abstract idea expression
Hui yi, combination of specific graphic elements and symbolic abstraction expression
Hsing sheng, combination of phonetic and pictorial elements
Chia chieh, almost homophonic used because of his phonetic value to represent a homophone only or character with what does not keep relation
Chuan chu, character that has acquired a necessary made new meaning, what has assign to the primitive meaning a new graph or modify what already had.
These Chinese character education methods receive Liu Chu name or the Six writing methods.
In the own the stamps, the lines style, so horizontal as vertical, they are thin, you standarize, energetic and they tend to finish in end. The moment of maximum style development coincided with the Ch’in dynasty (221-207 to. Of C.)Two main varieties gave period in which: Ta Chuan (bigger style) and Hsiao Chuan (smaller Style.) Numerous samples of the bigger style remain in inscriptions made on stone in shape of drum (kuwen shih) and bronze vessels like the Ch’in Kung Kuei. The smaller style is characterized by his sinuous, stylized, careful and energetic ways in contrast to the bigger style except refined. Li Szu, staked Ch’in dynasty, minister bequeathed to the posterity the Shan that constitutes the smaller style’s of stamp writing unequaled model Thai stone inscription.
The normal writing, K’ai Shu, was developed during the dynasty they Have (206 to. St. to 220 d. C.)Taking as I model the administrative writing. His current name is “normalized writing” (cheng k’ai) when being more có fashion than the writing administrative, turned into the usual writing for the daily needs. His crucial moment arrived in T’ang (618 to 907) dynasty period. He had emphasized calí grafos, as ch’ing (705 to 785,) Chen Yen, that created his own schools of normalized writing with energetic and defined lines and that let a lasting footprint in the story of the Chinese calligraphy.
The fast writing occupies an intermediate position between the normalized writing and the cursive writing. It is not as angulate as the administrative graph nor as rounded as the stamp writing. The best way of describing her would be as regularized writing variant maybe. He takes his name of the speed of his execution. His development tends to attribute to dynasty sheng Liu Teh there Is oriental.
Multiple varieties of the cursive writing or “of grass,” some of which are combinations with other styles, as for example the stamp cursive writing and the administrative writing exist. An “informal cursive writing” (ts’ao k’uang) exists also. The common features to the s several varieties are: Simplified structure, joint lines, lines made hurriedly and with looseness, and scarce legibility. He exists a better Chinese proverb that is what expresses east font beauty:
The writing stops but the meaning continues. He leaves the paintbrush, but his power is inexhaustible. Of the five Chinese writing, styles the cursive writing is who plus one approximates to the abstractionism. Bring in the calligraphists who more have emphasized in the land of the cursive along the story, that managed to arrange the apparent chaos of this writing shape, and that founded his own schools, figure Wang Hsien-chih of the oriental Chin dynasty and huai His T’ang dynasty (725-785.) Bring in the contemporary one, Yu Yu in (1879-1964.)
The Chinese calligraphy is not such only one practical daily life instrument but it is built-in, along with the painting, in one of the most significant trends of the history of art Chinese.
Literature and Printing:
The vastísima and varied literature Chinese has been developed from very old until Modern Age in a line of continuity that joins the primitive verses written probably the 11th century ago, to. st., the oldest writing becomes on slats of wood or of bamboo with an elaborated sharpened material last broach with this in an end, that got wet in a coloured liquid. They began one to use of hair and to write on silk or paper, known this last by the Chineses in the 2nd century d subsequently. st., since then the country artists use the same materials.
The first impression tentatives could be inspired by tracings taken of the inscriptions on stone that date from the 9th century d. St. Then the idea of printing on paper emerged with wood blocks, and at ends of the 10th century that method in the book production was used extensively. It is thought that Pi Sheng invented the mobile kinds of cooked clay about year 1043, but that those did not become of wood blocks until the 14th century is possible. Because of Chinese language nature, represented in thousands of pictograms, the mobile kinds did not become popular as he succeeded in europa.
The Chinese traditional Painting:
You start them from the Chinese traditional painting periods of the story of this country go back to them plus tempranas. Generally, we can say that the previous works to the T’ang (618-907) dynasty are line produced by people drawing that are devoted to other activities. This was golden age of the human figure drawings. During first half of the dynasty T’ang, the landscape and the paintings that represented flowers and birds started to win importance. The pictures with mountains, forests, countrysides and gardens allow us to evade us of the world displeasures and penetrate into the kingdom of the peace and the peacefulness. This has been the reason of which the landscape has been always a pictorial way very appreciated by the writers and bureaucrats Chinese. Also the trees are very been amazed; stones; prairies; flowers birds and rough others who appear in the flower paintings and birds, equipped of big vivacity and energy. Therefore, the three main classes of the Chinese traditional painting the landscape, flowers would be and birds and the human first period figure representations.
T’ang dynasties and Sung (920-1279) governing classes and the elites were big painting sponsors. The objective that pursued one with the works of this period was not artistic purely but I had an aspect political and educative. The Style tended to be elaborated and bright. Her Sung dynasty cut founded an academy of painting with a systematic plan of studies. Hui Tsung emperor, of the Sung dynasty emphasized his love to the artes in general and to the painting in particular brought bottoms for the promising artists’ education. This was maximum academy splendor period.
The Chinese painting realism grade has been source of frequent debates. Some can think that he is not realistic by no means, but that only is partially true. The realism in the Chinese painting culminated during the T’ang dynasties and Sung. However, it is not about a realism that I try to reflect the object objectively as such and as this is gained by the senses, but more he eithers he tries to express of subjective way what hides after the appearance of the things.
The main element of the Chinese painting is the line, feature that shares with the calligraphy, what has been reason of which both artes have been linked from his origin narrowly. During period of success of the painters writers in Yuan dynasty, times the men of letters that were devoted to the painting tried to reaffirm stiller intentionedly the links between the calligraphy and to painting, by what one dumped in a trend that I combined both disciplines. Likewise, the intense relation between poetry and painting rose up by the influence from the literature on the painting.
The art of the Chinese traditional piece of furniture:
The Chinese traditional piece of furniture developed from the simplicity to complexity and it was linked to the way of life and to the economic and cultural changes of Pebble along his story narrowly. Previously to the T’ang dynasty, the most frequent was that the Chineses sat down in the floor on esterillas of straw. After Kingdom combatants period (475-221 to. Of C.)He started to generalize the use of beds and sofas as seats. In times of the Chin (220-420) Wei dynasty and of the northern and southern dynasties (420-589,) they started to penetrate into Chinese the western style chairs, the scissors chairs and other kinds of seats. From this moment, the Chineses’ daily business went on to decide from chairs instead of from the floor, with the crossed legs. The straw mattings began one to be used to cover the beds and sofas.
The Ming furniture stood out by his easy, uniform line, without ruptures and by his laconic and elegant decoration, all which tends to enhance his splendid features of construction. During the dynasty Ch’ing, because of the influence from the Chinese flourishing external trade and to the craft technique advance, one it happened to a decoration rich and complex that included carvings. Because of the big development of the Chinese piece of furniture with the Ming dynasties and Ch’ing, most of the current Chinese furniture design remains in this line
As in the Chinese traditional architecture, the wood is the most important material in the furniture manufacturing. This is like that by a double reason: By a side, because of the needs derived from the Chinese way of life and, by other, because of the forest big richness of the country. There are two main kinds of furniture: Lacquered them and that of hardwood. The lacquered I often used one in the furniture of palaces and temples and in families’ that of the affluent houses. Between his varieties we have the t’i style hung, of carved lacquer; ch’i in which the lacquer uses one to refill a carved figure in the wood, t’ien, and one smooths later; ch’i miao, or draft in lacquer; and he has it, or nacre embeddings. One can combine two or more methods in a same piece. The furniture in hardwood are usual at rich families’ homes, but they used still one more in the houses of the noblemen and of authorities. Between the used woods one they tell it of red sandalwood; peral; padauk; ebony and nanmu. That of red sandalwood is the most appreciated in the manufacturing of furniture by his density, hardness and resistor to the passing of time.
Visiting a Chinese drugstore in the Republic of China comes to be as enter in a museum of natural sciences midget. Ready in rigorous order in cajoncitos rows, animals, vegetables and minerals meet the most varied products each one of them with a specific use. Between this curiosity assortment we find cinnabar and amber to calm peach nerves, safflower and bones to improve the circulation of the blood, he federates pebble (mahuan) to produce perspiration and ginseng to strengthen the cardiac function.
The preparation of a Chinese doctor’s recipe is a worthy process of being contemplated. The pharmacist chooses some of the hundreds of ingredients that he keeps in his shelves. The patient one takes them home, he boils them until transforming them into a soup species and he drinks them. Before a smoking brew as this, someone could ask one which is the medicinal old art basis. The bases Chinese medicine theorists sat down more than two millennium ago. A big part of the ancestral medical knowledges one Chin pre has preserved in that with secret (Nei Ching,) a wide document that picks the Chinese medical theories of period up (221-207 to. Of C.). The dynasty they Have (206 to. Of C. -220 d. Of C.) A practical guide for the treatment of the illnesses that is reliable and valuable even nowadays occurred: The Agreement on the illnesses caused by related factors to the cold (Shang there Is) ching Chang Chung (Lun.) One of the most famous works of Chinese medicine is medical matter (Pen Ts’ao Kang Mu,) compiled in Ming (1368-1644) dynasty period by Li Shih chen. This encyclopedic work inaugurated a new era in the worldwide story of the pharmacology. He includes the 1.892 different kind of medicaments description. All these texts have been translated into several foreign languages and have had an influence on the European and of the Asian southeast countries deeply.
The Chineses own classification’s of the illnesses that differs in the westerner extensively own system. The philosophical doctrine that supports the Chinese medicine is that the man lives between the sky and earth, and sets up as himself a universe in miniature. The matter of which the human beings are shaped is considered belonging to the “yin,” the feminine, passive and recessive nature aspect. On the other hand, these beings’ vital functions are considered belonging to the “yang,” masculine aspect, active and dominant. The human beings’ functions describe one by the five following corporal centres:
Heart or mind (without:) He refers to lead’s of the body that shows as awareness and intelligence centre.
Lungs or respiratory system (fei:) This system controls several corporal functions and keeps equilibrium cybernetic
Liver (Khan:) He includes the trunk and the extremities, you mechanisms for emotional answer to the external middle and activity from the different ones organs.
spleen (p’i:) He controls the distribution of the nutritious elements in the organism, as well as the metabolism, providing force and resistor to the physical body;
Kidneys (shen:) With this term they refer to the system who controls the nutritious reservations and the use of the energy. Of him the human beings’ vital force depends.
By this theory, that knows one as latent phenomena (hsiang ts’ang,) one them understand several corporal functions. The season succession and the time changes can have an influence on the human body. The elements that bigger effect the wind (feng), the cold produce sound (there) the heat (his,) the humidity (shih) (are,) the dryness (tsao) and the internal heat (huo, “fire.”) The excessive or out of the usual corruptions of the atmospheric time damage to the organism and know like the “six external factors of origin of the illness” (yin liu.) On the other hand, if they produce extreme corruptions of the fellow state of mind I eat happiness (hsi), cholera (nu), worry (yu), sadness (his,) affliction (foot,) fear (k’ung) and surprise (ching,) her can also suffer cheers. These feelings are denominated “the seven emotions” (c’i ch’ing.) In the Chinese medicine, the six external factors of origin of the illness, along with the seven emotions, constitute the theoretic base of the illness pathology. These theoretic, joint to the latent phenomenon theory models use one in the analysis of the constitution of the patient and of his illnesses, as well as diagnosing exact nature of his physical and psychic equilibrium loss gives birth.
Besides the medicines, other treatment used with frequency in the Chinese medicine shape is the acupuncture. His story one overcomes to previous periods to the Chinese writing appearance, but he did not reach his full development after the dynasty even they Have. His theoretic basis consists of the regulation of the c’hi, or vital energy flow. The c’hi flows by the body through the main and secondary canal system (ching the.) In certain points of these canals, one can situate acupuncture needles or burn Chinese artemisa (ts’ao ai) by moxibustión, with the end of solving the unbalances in c’hi flow and concentrating autocurativa capacity of the organism in the adequate places. January 1980, the Health’s Worldwide Organization made public a list of 43 kinds of pathologies on which an acupuncture treatment was effective. He does time that the use of the acupuncture as he anesthetizes in surgical processes or I give birth to the birth without ache stopped being a novelty.
The Chinese Architecture Art:
The Chinese architecture is characterized by dividing the space into rectangular units that join one to form a whole. The rectangular way also was used in the Greek temples, but the effect was of austerity. The Chinese style, on the contrary, combines rectangles of different sizes and in different positions of agreement between the importance of the group organization. The different levels and elements distinguish one clearly. The result is a mysterious at the same time dynamic and impressive, but outer aspect.
In the Chinese traditional architecture, the space unit distribution one is ruled by the principles of equilibrium and symmetry. The axis constitutes the main structure. The secondary structures are established to both axis forming the central courtyard and the main rooms sides. Both the housings and the official buildings, temples and palaces get adjusted one to this fundamental principle. In the inside space distribution the Chineses’ ethical and social values reflect one.
In the traditional housings, for example, the rooms assign one according to the position of each person in the familiar hierarchy. The householder occupies the main room, the members of this bigger age of the family live in the back and them plus young in the wings left, and right; the biggest in the left and the youngest in the right.
The Chinese architecture is characterized also by the use of a structure of wood beams and pillars and a wall of adobe that surrounds three of the building sides. Main door and windows establish in the front. The Chineses take using the wood as one of his main construction materials from thousands of years ago. The wood represents life and this is the main idea that the Chinese culture in his multiple demonstrations, tries to communicate. This feature has arrived until our days.
These traditional rectangular way edifications are divided in rooms in keeping with the beam structure and wood pillars. To be able to finish off the construction with a projecting wide roof, the Chineses invented a type special of named support kung that raises level by level from each one of the pillars tou. This supports have the function so constructive as ornamental, with an attractive and very characteristic way. This architectural style it happened to Japan subsequently and you Sing All Together.
The use of the wood gave place to certain characteristic architectural features. In first place, the width and inside space depth come determined by the wood structure. Secondly, technicians were developed of lacquered with the end of keeping her. Brilliant lacquered of alive colors and these turned one into one of the own features of the Chinese traditional architecture. Finally, the technique of raising the structure to a platform in order to avoid damages provoked by the humidity exists. The platform height depends on the importance of the building. A high platform adds force, sophistication and elegance to the big buildings.
The mural ones polychrome that appear in the traditional buildings with his wide variety of reasons and topics, have a value at a time decorative and symbolic. In them we find represented dragons, birds phoenix, myths, landscapes, floral reasons, birds, etc He is of emphasizing the development that acquires the woodcarving in wood in the southern Pebble especially in Taiwan. These sculptures, along with the mural ones, constitute an elegant and nice decoration.
The roofs tend to be to two waters in the southern traditional houses of China, included Taiwan, his dividing adorns one with ceramic, breaking so the building line continuity. The typical Chinese roof curve, as admired by a lot of visitors, symbolizes the Chinese culture spirit. Whereas the building rest is relatively easy, the roof introduces an element of bent surprise by means of his up and dividing eaves. This feature goes together the parallelism between the lines of the Chinese traditional architecture and the his calligraphy lines. From the dynasty they Have (206 to. Of ST. 220 d. Of C.)Chinese painting and decoration have tended to the curved, dynamic, loose way employment. One of the maximum principles of the Chinese art consists of communicating the “vital rate” (yün ch’i) to the work of art.
In the Chinese temples we find a wide architectural style range. The religions to which they find one devoted these temples are; fundamentally; Buddhism; Taoism and religions ancestral and traditional; but all they share a same structure. Because of the popular religious rich tradition on Taiwan, we find temple crowd on the island. This is one of his more outstanding cultural features. A moderate calculation of the temple number could give us a figure of 5.000, many of them with architectural value. Between the most famous and striking samples of the religious traditional architecture and Tienhou in Lukang, the temple of Lungshan in Taipei and that of Chaotien in Peikang have Lungshan temples. The temple of Lungshan of Lukang city stands out by his long story and his high artistic value.
Customs, games traditional and shows Chinese:
Year new Chinese and other parties traditional are moments of happiness and celebrations. Despite the strong influence of the western culture on the each time most cosmopolitan Republic of China in Taiwan, them several traditions associated with these parties go on one practicing enthusiastically. Many of these customs and traditional shows form a part of the competitions and acts made with reason of Chinese new year and of other popular parties, and have transmitted one of generation in generation. The most usual can that are the dance of lion dragon and the dance. Taiwan all children, until whom yet can not not walk, have seen some of these representations set up in his parents shoulders or at home, in the television.
The dragon inspires a deep respect to the Chineses, since it is symbol of power, dignity and good luck. The dragon dance was already a popular act in Sung dynasty period (960-1279 to. C.) And he goes on being him in our days. The mask and the body of the dragon that use one in the dance can be of gold, green, jasper color or red fire. The dance can interpret a lot of daylight as nightly one one. In this last case, that I go preceded by a person with a torch to light up the procession is frequent. A dragon can have nine and 24 sections, and each one of these measures between one and middle and two metres. Her Three Army Dragon Dance company (earth, sea, air) of the Republic of China form a giant dragon that measures 120 metres by far. The total weight of the head and body is of more than 100 kg. The body is gold and shiny and they are needed more than 100 very hefty men to take it. This company functions in the public holidays, creating a show truly worthy of seeing.
The procession advances by the streets as he joins gigantic wave and is the most alike than he can see in this world a celestial dragon.
Also the lion dance counts on a long story. This dance determines less participants. The head and the lion body are easier to prepare and the space required for his execution is small. All this makes one to New Chinese and other parties can contemplate in any part during Year practically. Usually, two people are necessary to control the lion: One stops the head and other stops the glue. Sometimes a third person who takes some flowers silken intervenes or cover goes with a mask that represents to Buddha smiling and holds a fan of leaves of banana tree. This personage provokes the lion, adding so a note more than happiness to the festive atmosphere.
In the spiritual dance of the clam, a young man takes a shell of made clam with bamboo interwined strips. In one of the pictures, the clam spirit opens and closes the shell as answers to a fisher who throws him the networks, but who never manages his attempts to give result. In other, a bird tries to eat the clam, but only him that gets one is that I catch him the beak in the shell. This interpretation gets whenever the public they leave of laugh and is left the hands clapping.
General Story course; Alvear Acevedo Charles; of mexico 1964 Jus
World history; lopez Reyes; of Mexico 1985 CECSA
You note Select Topics of the Philosophy of the science and the technology, Uriel Dale