European Union is that the 21 centuries worlds are important one pole. So far, European Union’s attention readjusts oneself to a certain extent mainly on the economy integration construction. At present, European Union is accelerated from economy integration to politics , economic judicature, and safe all-round integration transit, the way being to advance gradually in due order from the easier to the more advanced,and the method of work being based on condition , adjusting in time adopting. Future European Union will bring the more and more important effect into play in area and international affairs , the change to 21 centuries pattern of the world produces very important effect. To here, we need to have sober understanding. Introduction relevance background and the data have used the main body of a book first found the marriage partner and system studying , have started with four aspect and then , have set forth European Union the prospect and problem working together going to China and European Union in position , European Union integration course in Chinese foreign trade respectively , have brought forward suggestion and countermeasure to here.
Area politics , economic group “being that in the nowadays world integration degree is maximal organize [keyword] European Union integration Chinese foreign trade [relevance data and background] European Union (be called “European Union E U for short). Whose predecessor is European Communities , is European Economic Community , coal steel community and general designation of atomic energy community.
Go into effect in November , 1993, “European Union treaty ” fit “Maastricht Treaty “), European Communities evolves for European Union. Now have 25 member state: France , Germany , Italy , Holland , Belgium , Luxembourg (the founding country) , United Kingdom , Denmark , Ireland (put in in 1973) , Greece (1981) , Spain , Portugal (1986) , Austria , Finland and Sweden (1995) , Poland , Hungary , Czech , Slovenia , Slovakia , Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Cyprus and Malta (2003), have formed a big unified scale marketplaces equal to USA.
On May 6 , 1975, China and European Economic Community build formal relation. On November 1 , 1983, China builds formal relation with European Coal and Steel Community and European Atomic Energy Community. So far, China and European Communities realization establish full diplomatic relations. European Union successively “concerns long range policy and “the to China new strategy of European Union” document by Chinese- European Union” in 1995 and in 1996, emphasize to should take the Chinese effect and effect seriously especially , adopt “constructive the strategy getting in touch with, reinforces both sides cooperation and conversation in economy and trade and their his each fields, Shenou alliance policy on China of equal importance completeness , independent character and protracted nature. In 1998, European Union has adopted a few further improving to China relation measure: No longer, decision brings forward the motion signing specifically for Chinese or unites on human rights meeting of the united nations; Revise anti-dumping regulation , China be stricken off “non-market economy “national list middle; The new document by policy on China “found all-round partnership with China” advocates that lifting Mitteleuropa relation is horizontal , deepens the both sides cooperation in each fields and communicates with, support China to join WTO.
In recent years, Mitteleuropa political relation is fine, high-rise exchange visits all of the various levels politics frequently, consults with actively. Chinese leaders has visited European Union a little member state respectively , major leaders of European Union member country have also successively visited China. Country United Kingdom premier Blair , European Union chairman of the committee Sangte have held Premier 4 month in 1998 , Zhu Rong Ji in London and the chairman of European Union first, the leader of Chinese- European Union meets, and issued a joint statement, Mitteleuropa founds the long-term stability constructive partnership being oriented toward the 21st century right away reaching consensus , institutionalization with leader year meeting. Besides, China and European Union and their member state has carried out the politics being unlike rank consulting with and having a dialogue , Chinese National People’s Congress and Political Consultative Conference have kept the regular association with european parliament and ECOSOC of European Union.
China and European Union relation already step into the orbit that all-round health develops. Make a general observation of development late years course, comparing with Sino-U. S. relation, Mitteleuropa relation has the obvious stability and rise. Fifth policy on China documents that European Union works out lately, the request and China develop strategic partnership. In October , 2003, the Chinese government works out and announces “Chinese for the first time to European Union policy documents “, have set forth the Chinese policy to European Union all round.
European Union is one of the most important cooperation of Chinese buddy one, since our country and European Union establish diplomatic relations since 1975 , bilateral trade and the economic cooperation develop with hitherto unknown speed. The data is indicated, the both sides total volume of trade has been about 200,000,000 U. S. dollar only in 1975 , has reached but 40,340,000,000 U. S. dollar then in 1995 , has grown by 21 times during the about 2 years. European Union also is increasing to European Union in 2000 anticorona, direct investments accumulated forehead year by year to investment of our country almost 40 billion U. S. dollar. But relatively Er Yan , bilateral trade overall the scale is not still big , about 1 European Union member state total volume of trade still is lower than USA and Japan. In 2002 Mitteleuropa bilateral trade already amounts to 86,700,000,000 U. S. dollar. 1 already exceeds 89 billion U. S. dollar till September in 2003, exceeds 4 tenths with the ratio. European Union already have become Chinese third big trade buddies after , living in Japan , USA , before Chinese Hong Kong.
European Union investment in China fervency rises high. Always investment project number and volume of contracted foreign capital row Hong Kong area, Japan, USA, Korea Republic afterwards column fifth but the person to China direct investments project appear out average scale big, fully-funded rates high technology, contents high, economy and social benefits good and so on characteristic. Sound familiar west of Chinese the Pacific Ocean petroleum and chemical , law country laugh because good fortune , Germany benefit projects such as the Bohai Sea you , Sweden Ericsson , are that China cooperates with European Union’s success.
Besides, China introduces dynamics from European Union technology enlarge. The European Union member country becomes Chinese introduction of new technology , maximal equipment supplier.
Two, the European Union integration course goes to China and European Union economy and trade cooperation prospect European Union assumes that in 21 centuries medium term, the surrounding countries expanding European Economic Area to Eastern Europe and Southern Europe, establishes Europe “satisfying Europe Economic Union “; In May , 2003, 10 the country such as Poland , Hungary , Czech , Slovenia , Slovakia , Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Cyprus and Malta etc. becomes European Union’s new member state formally. European Union that beyond doubt, a new’s has expanded will will be boundless becoming business machine land of happiness. New European Union population increases from now 370 million to 480 million , overall scale will equal to USA. A big unified marketplaces of so-called scale, be any enterprise have no way to ignore.
European Union expands the most direct benefit, lessening being these new member state customs tariff. Entrance customs duties is at present , newcomer the country’s without exception common European Union is high comparatively. For instance, Poland and Hungary share entrance customs duties to being not that agricultural products is put into effect, respectively for 19.9% and 9.8%, but European Union’s average level only have 7.4%. The customs duties lessening, is conducive to Chinese enterprise beyond doubt expand exports.
Customs duties obj1 = ” 位” ? exchanges the product descending but receiving favour especially to Chinese enterprise Er Yan , because of entering alliance including clock and watch , toy , game , motion articles for use and imitation jewelry , customs duties is in 5% following without exception because of European Union is put into effect to these products. The tax rate that Eastern Europe collects in every country is but higher but. Take maximal Poland of 10 countries middle as example , be national wrist watch customs duties height’s turn to amount to 20%- 35%, height also amounts to 21% imitation jewelry tax rate. It is crystal clear that eastern european countries allocates low customs duties after entering alliance ,will be conducive to the Chinese product expand sales.
Behind joining European Union, as long as the standard gains the attestation Chinese product according to European Union, be therefore likely the country is approved in the newcomer. This enumerates and is confined to not only the electron and electric equipment products, include other multiclass consumer goods and food. The technical standards unification, also may be conducive to Chinese enterprise make rubbings from the national marketplace of exhibition newcomer although the product having increased China to a certain extent enters the marketplace degree of difficulty, more, sell but get bigger scale merit in Western Europe and market of eastern europe because the product can be simultaneous.
European Union’s expansion, implies China being able to gain Puhui from more countries making pay. Puhui makes namely “GSP “, is that the developed country gives developing country outlet one kind of tariff preference system of finished products and crude product (include some primary product). Puhui makes lower exports of item customs duties should be about 1/3 retinue lower than most-favoured-nation tax rate averagely. But at present, 15 countries of European Union belong to equally to the favor country, the newcomer makes pay in the country only when Poland , Czech and Siluo attack 3 gram of countries giving China Puhui. European Union expands the queen , all newcomers capital will give China the finished products uttering , crude product Puhui makes pay, customs duties gives preferential treatment to this pair of Chinese enterprise enjoyment , the beneficial result expanding exports , raising outlet has certain benefit.
Euro may enjoy national treatment after Euro circulates especially, after external capital of area entering Euro area , have made the capital metastasis in Euro area convenient and rapid a lot of , have attraction very much to chinese entrepreneurs. Be rich in the charm tourist market as for Mitteleuropa is extensive , admit large amount of Ou Zhong visitor , be also to be able to foresee.
Have originated from the open integration of step-by-step trend of European Union pattern formally , have adjusted self poolicy orientation also unceasingly despite of European Union organizes breathing spaces, but its adopting the route expanding member state’s afterwards mainly expanding self in cold war as a institutionalization integration , successively having worked out new trend Asia strategy and the document founding all-round partnership with our country , have shown European Union taking seriously to the relation carrying out with Asia every country, especially this has enormous potential marketplace taking seriously to our country Xin Xing.
The 6th time of Mitteleuropa leader meets at Beijing on October 30 , 2003, hold. China side brings forward 2007 , Mitteleuropa bilateral volume of trade arrives at to make every effort to reach 150 billion U. S. dollar, reach 200 billion U. S. dollar in 2013. The first big trade and investment buddy European Union is reaffirmed needing to become China (be each other’s third big trade partners at present). In above-mentioned “China, in policy documents “, we already have indicated that to European Union: Expect that European Union becomes maximal trade of Chinese and invests in a buddy. For this purpose, China will concentrate efforts on the economy and trade cooperation relation developing “rich Mitteleuropa vigour and long-term stability. Under the both sides effort, European Union becomes maximal trade of Chinese and investing in a buddy is completely possible.
Technical standards of technical standards of Chinese more strict with European Union economy and trade cooperation problem being confronted with in integration course in European Union frontage European Union is numerous and complicated three, almost relates to all entrance products. In recent years, European Union is concealing when raising a trade wall all comparatively , is sometimes is putting banners such as technical standards , health quarantine , environmental protection, height builds non-tariff barrier. But, eastern european countries relaxes in the past relatively comparatively in the field of these. After but European Union expands, new member state also is able to adopt the European Union standard , leads into these being not customs duties character trade restrictions measure. Enter the alliance queen , new member state must adopt technical standards of European Union currently in effect, and in connection with healthy and safe regulation. For instance, European Union requires that the entrance product gains “denotational EC technology attestation mostly, one this demanding to will apply to new member state also. In fact, new member state is following the example of unified Euro-product of European Union regulation step by step during the past the past few years , includes organization , normalizing and marketplace supervision appraising organization , attestation etc. among them.
Every time European Union revises or adjusts some kind product technical standards since Chinese product standard of the products is relatively lower,sometimes bring about comparatively big impingement the city’s export to Chinese product. Enumerate several examples handily. European Union forbids selling the clothing containing azo-dye not too long before passing , forbids using an array to may bring about the chemical fertilizer contaminating to the environment , having caused no small effects on Chinese relevance estate. The electron product used and scrap being put into effect soon handles European Union preparing chemical products regulation , the effect to Chinese product is also very big. According to expert what predicted one direct merely the electron product used and scrap handles law and regulation , will make electron product’s export to European Union such as Chinese colour TV , computer display cut down 20% or so right away.
European Union’s anti-dumping measure foreign trade to Chinese Er Yan , European Union’s anti-dumping lets person have a headache more. At present, cigarette lighter , shoe kind and electric iron oppose the dumping outside except Poland to Chinese pocket size , most newcomer countries are not similar with at present to Chinese product acting. After but, the newcomer enters alliance, will lead into European Union’s anti-dumping measure equally. Need to know China is a maximal anti-dumping of European Union target. European Union implements trade protection 38 batches in total to my exports according to most new statistics, at present , 37 gets anti-dumping among them case , 1 gets guarantee measure case , relates to much industry products such as my five ore , chemical industry , spinning and weaving , electromechanical , soil livestock. Since these Chinese products need to pay same dumping duty when entering 10 newcomer countries on May 1 , 2003 the day afer tomorrow also,the exit cost definitely enlarging Chinese enterprise, is able to lead to a few Chinese products be forced to withdraw from being hit by market of eastern europe even.
The agreement will lose effect European Union expanding with the bilateral trade that countries such as middle Eastern Europe signs , will deals with a problem , will is that the bilateral trade agreement that China signs before this with countries such as middle Eastern Europe will lose an effect. Be that push bilateral trade has developed , China and a lot of middle eastern european countries have signed the bilateral trade agreement offering mutual benefit and achieving common progress. These agreements will automatically cease to be in force after these countries join European Union , will affirm that enterprise has some of adverse effects to China.
Export mix of our country is strong with Central and Eastern European countries parallel approximation , competitiveness. The western European country is to make use of advantage such as Eastern Europe low-priced workforce , East and West Europe geographical feature approximation especially in recent years, sets up a factory in large amount to eastern european countries investment , waits for the developing country competition Central and Eastern European countries having aggravated more in the field of industrial products with China. Being let person worry about more, since middle eastern european countries competition is relatively weaker, once entering alliance, they will for self’s benefit, drive European Union who expands the day afer tomorrow’s to enter port to being not member domestic products interposing more obstacles, China may become the main victim.
In the inside of European Union, China of overall inharmonious with member state part is very different from develop the economic and trade relationship and China and other unitary country of European Union occurrence economic and trade relationship. Chinese ask trade policy to face unified trade policy of European Union not only, and also ask to face every European Union member state’s. European Union is the regional trade bloc , every member state economic development is unbalanced , some are more similar than exports and Chinese exports country who falls behind and area’s , therefore, European Union’s product portion may be digested away inside european union Chinese outlet right away , restricts Chinese’s export to European Union thereby. Meanwhile, European Union member state adopt European Union to unite fixed regulation when entering port generally , inclination Yu adopt every more nimble member state regulation but then when uttering , reaches the market force expanding exports , protecting in the homeland thereby. This comes to say to China , definitely is able to improve the cost entering the European Union marketplace.
Countermeasure and suggestion compensate negotiation four, aspect in trade , every industry associations should produce a marked effect European Union’s expansion, is to imply European Union this one free-trade zone and the customs union expansion. But be based on WTO regulation: Customs union or free-trade zone member, to the customs duties that the third party carries out comparing with other trade law and regulation, generally not to overtop or level before strict Yu customs union or free-trade zone building-up. This also implies , enterprise produces if European Union expands to China an adverse effect, China is entitled to require that European Union carries out compensation. USA , Japan and countries such as Russia already compensate problem the negotiation having spread out at present with European Union with regard to trade. Department of Commerce joins also already China to this one ranks. But the official concerned that however, European Union trade always attends to is expressed, European Union hopes that the problem is in progress at this point with China side discuss that, think that European Union expands producing active effect to Chinese enterprise population General, European Union carries out compensation unnecessarily, unless China side’s viewpoint can be confirmed. Since China is that the compensation carrying out trade negotiates with other trade bloc first, before negotiation experience, respond to the field and material relating that prepare, especially various trade data preparation aspect is all a little bit insufficient. China needs in the field of foreign trade negotiation and international community receives a track, need to pay attention to giving full scope to various industry associations especially.
Trade negotiation involves in expanding extremely face to face , Department of Commerce who is government departments certainly needs to bring into play taking the lead effect. But a import and export condition having the industry associations that the effect operates to know our industry in fact especially, because of this involves in one’s immediate or vital interests of enterprise. The country , industry associations are working out relevance law and regulation in Europe and America in defending our industry benefit, the aspect affecting government decision-making is bringing the important effect into play. Unfortunate being , China at present industry associations many belong to accurate government departments , enterprise is not composed of spontaneously voluntarily, the effect being able to bring into play is also pretty limited. Therefore Chinese industry associations ought to bring into full play mutually between harmonize an effect.
Put trade and interactive strategy of investment into practice in China and European Union’s trade, China always is in favourable balance state , European Union is in adverse balance of trade state. Chinese’s export to European Union may continue increasing by after adding WTO, imbalance in trade condition probably continues maintaining. Chinese enterprise enters European Union marketplace way and rate war strategy rapidly with trade , that exceedingness is vigilant against and adopt corresponding protection very easy to arouse European Union, makes China convey Europe product cost rising thereby. Respond to the problem studying China enters European Union marketplace way for this purpose , right away. Theory and practice are being indicated equally , there are existing the rapid and intense relevance in trade and investment, while direct trade cost rises, investment the best way it is marketplace to enter. At present, China still belongs to blank space to European Union’s investment , way enters and trade method enters Chinese to European Union marketplace with investment to look like not balancing exceedingly, this definitely brings about Chinese product extremely large vulnerability in European Union marketplace. Therefore, China responds to while continuing expanding export to Europe, be accelerated the investment step to European Union.
Reinforce the association , exchange visits with European Union , enhance the acceleration knowing with European Union integration course, China ought to strengthen associating with , to reinforce mutual high-rise exchange visits with European Union, to enhance each other acquaintances; Found the intermediary organizations courting the business network , making use of a local, channel making use of diplomatic and consular missions and the amicable city to broaden move merchant; Develop the strategic partnership having the strength company with European Union; Fully utilize Chinese self’s industrial advantages, strengthens competition in one new wheel opening policy.
[References] cycle eight steeds, 1999: < > , Shanghai People’s Publishing House Xu Song , 2000: “International trade problem ” < > < >, the 12nd expects Wang Lin Sheng, 2003 “economic globalization and Chinese foreign trade (two)”, the 11th phase “Chinese foreign trade developing trend of” China covers April 2 , 2003 as with a net