In recent years, the cultural and creative industries as a national “soft power” and the comprehensive national strength is one of the important embodiment of, by governments extensive attention. As a new industry, the rapid development of the cultural and creative industries from the government’s reasonable planning, foster and guide. From cultural and creative development at home and abroad experience, industrial policy for promoting the development of industry of originality of local culture plays an important role. Domestic and foreign scholars and prove this this opinion. Cultural and creative industries in our country although has made great progress, but is still at the initial stage of development, compared with the developed countries, the industrial base is not enough consolidated, development level in the lower reaches. To speed up the development of cultural and creative industries in China, an important aspect is the role of government is especially important, transfer the function of government, strengthen cultural creativity policy research and perfect the policy support system is the important cultural and creative industries development foundation and basic premise.
From 2003 years of cultural system reform in Chinese cultural the development of creative industry policy easing played a role, with the deepening of reform and development in the cultural and creative industries, to “improve public cultural undertakings, support the development of cultural industries, encourage cultural innovation policy, to build a high-quality goods, the talent, the benefit of the environment”. The key is how to define the government and cultural enterprise future identity, and in the two aspects, scientifically define the government’s identity and correct play to the government in policy making and guide the role of the industry is very important. Cultural and creative industries and history of the background of the rise of the different reasons contemporary, analysis of cultural and creative industries, the role of government; Summarizes the development from the domestic and foreign cultural and creative industries advanced experience, this paper puts forward the government to promote the development of cultural and creative industries overall policy framework, especially the transformation of government functions and policy orientation of research, to our country better planning and development of cultural and creative industries puts forward relevant policy Suggestions. So to our cultural development of creative industries key government role and policy factors, the cultural and creative industries to promote the rapid, healthy and continuous development has the very good practical significance.
Through the domestic and international cultural and creative industries between different system in the development of the transformation of government functions and the comparison of the industrial policy development, cultural and creative industries and other industrial policy comparison, cultural and creative industries different development phase, the comparison of the policy, and combining with China’s cultural and creative industries and policy support system development present situation, through the analysis of the mechanism and policy for the future development trend of the forecast analysis policy, and puts forward practical conforms to our country industry policy, cultural and creative development for our country to have good heuristic role.
Second, the transformation of government functions and policy research.
At present foreign cultural and creative industries for policy research mainly in the following aspects: first, reasonable definition of cultural and creative industries system and culture of the relationship between the creative industry policy. Creative industry is a fusion of many industry comprehensive industry, the industrial activity by interlocking structure, the creative industry clear industry division is the basis for the development of industry, also is the policy making and implementing foundation. Second, the development of the cultural and creative industries policy, depend on the attention of the countries, policy on optimization of the development of the cultural and creative industries macro environment.
Third, cultural and creative industries policy should reflect the market on the distribution of resources decision effect, and promote the development of industrialization management mode.
In the western developed countries, the transformation of government functions transfer gone from a “government guidance” transfer “market-oriented” process. Since the 1960 s, western countries after world war ii experience in the development of gold, the government management faces many social dilemmas and public accused. Because the welfare state and the promotion of the concept, western governments power expand, expanded government functions, the role of government inflation caused the popular discontent. People think the size of government too big, too much of the scarce resources consumption; 2 it is the government management range is too wide, themselves into too much activities in the waste of resources; Three is to act on the government in a wrong way, the public think through the bureaucracy in low efficiency and provide services shall be invalid.
The famous contemporary economics thesis “target =” _blank “> economist and Nobel economic prize winner James M buchanan, to” public goods supply of low efficiency “as a result of government failure is analyzed, and the public choice theory. Public choice theory is the aim of the market in the system of human behaviour and political system of government actions into the orbit of the same analysis, public choice method is applied to the public administration field, the focus of concern is the government’s management activities and all areas of public policy formulation and implementation. Public choice theory to emphasize the value of the market, it gives the government open the prescription is to make the government should not do and do bad things to the markets to complete. The marketization of public service has the following three meanings: 1 · will decision-making and implementation separate, the government is more of a” helm “(decision), not the” oar “(executive). 2 · public service provider of multiple coexist, break the monopoly and competition development. 3 · public service of consumers have multiple providers in between the right to choose and to choose resources.
In simple terms, is to provide a public good introduce market competition mechanism, to the public on individual the chance to choose.
Osborne and cover the reform government “policy in book competition will be divided into three categories: one is to the competition and private, that is, let the public organizations and private organizations to provide a public service, which led to the competition; 2 it is the competition to private private, namely the government for the private enterprise each other competition, so as to provide some public services; Three of the public is male competition, the government’s own internal organization to between competition, so as to achieve the good service effect.
In the marketization of public service calls the academic, from the 1970 s, western developed countries began to change public service-oriented government, formed a “the new public management movement”, this new public administration and the government management theory form the new mode of practice, is also a recent western on an unprecedented scale of the administrative reform one of main guiding ideology. “The new public management” emphasis on public management must take the market as the guidance, the market economy is the foundation of a public service-oriented government. All kinds of public service is the development of market economy and political products; Enterprise, society and must be in public as the main body, the transformation of government functions for macro regulation and public services; Must to provide public services as the core. In the transformation of government functions of the process, culture gradually also become the main body of the market, so in the cultural development of creative industries in the transformation of government functions most essential is introducing competition mechanism. “The new public management” for the cultural and creative industries the transition of the function of the government management provides a new idea. First, the government provided core public culture products and services idea; Second, the government’s public management should have the idea of market efficiency, the new public administration will equity and justice in the government of the value system of the first place, new public management theory is in use government money to pay attention to fairness and justice emphasizes, on the basis of the use of money market efficiency, the quality of government services under unprecedented attention.
Along with the rapid development of the cultural and creative industries, domestic related research achievements and literature more and more, mainly from the management science, industry economics, art economics, communication, and so Angle in detail, a comprehensive analysis of our creative industry situation, development trend, and the main problems in the development, Suggestions and measures, etc. In the cultural development of creative industries of the government function change point of view on the main from do culture into the culture, from the almighty government change for limited government. Almighty government is the government in social and political life, economic life, culture life full control and control, and the control without any restrictions and restriction, limited government is defined as a public authority, the government admits that his policy have a certain limit range, and must be by society and government within the strict supervision. In the light of the domestic study of literature, the culture of administrative organization of the basic functions that set of policy, exercise supervision and provide services.
Policy is cultural administrative agencies macro management reform plan and system design process, specific have four functions: first, determine the development of cultural and creative industries strategic planning; Second, through the different system arrangement of the creative industry of influence culture structure layout and development direction; Third, according to international rules and the actual situation of China, formulate the corresponding guide of the industry standard; Fourth, through the legislation and other binding forms to perform the market standard, the protection of intellectual property rights and for illegal activities. Because as a cultural propaganda and implementation of the system will need to be macro supervision, ensuring that culture industry in the legal orbit health development. Provide service is a government to construct the system of independent development culture industry.
However, for the cultural and creative industries policy research but much less, and rarely in both studied together, the research of this aspect comes down to several aspects: first, on our cultural and creative industries policy problems. Mainly has: incomplete policy system, lack of specific policy for sex and systematic; Cultural and creative business institutions of the management and control power can’t meet practical needs; The current policy on cultural and creative industries of intellectual property rights protection is insufficient; In promoting China’s cultural and creative industries and the international community, to the world, the current policy is insufficient. Second, about the cultural and creative industries policy Suggestions. Mainly has:
Constructing perfect policy support system, is the important cultural and creative industries development prerequisite, Cultural and creative industries policy for focus on industrial structure adjustment, improve the quality of cultural and creative industries development and level; Cultural and creative industries policies should be helpful for adjusting structure of regional development, promote cultural and creative industries in different areas, the balanced development; Cultural and creative industries policy should be to intellectual property rights protection, investment and financing support and so on tilt.
Three, research of the innovation and the research content is discussed.
First, the study Angle of innovation. Through the cultural development of creative industries in different phases of the transformation of government functions and policy comparison, innovative policies and industry system will be formed by combining study, research and cultural and creative industries policy and other industrial policy of different between, this article and the particularity of the industry, and the unique Angle of cultural and creative industries policy research. Second, the realization theory and practice of closely combining. Because the author long engaged in the management of cultural and creative industries, in the course of the study, the combination of theory with practice more closely, proposed the policy measures around culture only the development of creative industry practice, thus, for practical guidance is more obvious. Third, introducing the mechanism of innovative policy research, and on the different ways the effectiveness of policy analysis, be helpful for further to cultural and creative industries policy research, has put forward some more practical and operability policy Suggestions.
In a study of a few innovation points, cultural and creative industries for different development phase, the comparison of the policy for policy, the mechanism of the content such as research, the not mature view at home and abroad, especially for the actual research more lack. Second, the cultural and creative industries is a new industry, industry division and statistical standards were different, and many phenomena and problems to further investigation, carding and exploration, this causes the difficulty of data collection, the research analysis form the adverse impact.
Third, to policy development trend of the future are difficult to predict. Because the policy for industry development has a great effect on policy analysis, forecast to be objective, reliable, found. Due to the basic conditions and material deficiencies, to the future trend analysis will appear difficult.
Through the domestic and international cultural and creative industries between different system in the development of the transformation of government functions and the comparison of the industrial policy development, cultural and creative industries and other industrial policy comparison, cultural and creative industries different development phase, the comparison of the policy, and combining with China’s cultural and creative industries and policy support system development present situation, through the analysis of the mechanism and policy for the future development trend of the forecast analysis policy, and puts forward practical conforms to our country industry policy, cultural and creative development for our country to have good heuristic role. And, further research needs to focus on the following content:
(1) different government function and the relationship between the policy orientation; (2) different stage how different orientation, the main influence factors what; (3) in what policies and the method effectively according to laws to promote industry development; (4) policy scale and its development level of the matching relation between; (5) how to adjust to the policy, the timing of the adjustment,, method and selection factors, etc.; (6) the government function change how to effectively influence institutional reform and management mechanism reform; (7) how to evaluate policy effectiveness; (8) how to set up and to adapt the mechanism for the implementation of the policy.