Financial crisis to our cultural industry development is for challenges and opportunity. This paper expounds the crisis period after our cultural industry in the background and the present situation, proposed the economic crisis is the development of cultural industry an opportunity this view that China should seize the opportunity, take the active strategy, promote cultural industry great-leap-forward development.
By the subprime crisis caused by the financial crisis has spread around the world, on our country’s economic influence is inevitable. However, financial crisis for the cultural industry, it is both challenges and opportunities. How to respond to the challenge, turn “crisis” as “machine”, the promotion of culture industry realize the leaping development, is we have to face a major realistic subject.
After our country during a crisis, and the development of cultural industry opportunities.
(a) the financial crisis stimulate cultural consumption culture industry development.
In general, the more economic depression, the more the public were free to enrich their spiritual world. So, the economic crisis but a culture of the machine. Films, radio, color animation, photography, cartoon products are means of dissemination in an economic crisis creation and develops. Digital publishing, mobile value-added services, network game, low price, new technology, the mode of transmission by market will eventually, become a cultural industry innovation means of dissemination and cultivating an important breakthrough new formats. The current international finance has spurred the people need to feel warm good wish, cultural consumption also became the demand of people hot spots. Prime minister wen jiabao in 2009 “two” government work report: “promote cultural development and prosperity, already can expand the consumption field, also be helpful for rich people’s cultural life.” (1) according to international experience, a per capita GDP development level and certain engel’s coefficient and a certain cultural correlation between consumer spending, and cultural needs with per capita GDP growth and increasing. In 2008, the per capita GDP has more than $3000, the corresponding cultural demand in the ratio of personal consumption should account for more than 20%, the total amount should be in consumer spending culture 4 trillion yuan of above, and at present cultural consumption spending less than $800 billion. (2) the potential demand of residents in our country culture is far from release, cultural consumption space is very big. So, can the ascension of the cultural needs to expand domestic demand as the important content, elaborate organization production to deal with crises practical cultural products, actively provide help people spirit of various health benefits reduced pressure of cultural consumption, for the revitalization of the cultural industry to create a more favorable social environment.
(2) the financial crisis helped burstling science and technology innovation cultural industry development.
Historical experience shows that the global economic crisis often accelerating major science and technology innovation and scientific and technological revolution. Major scientific and technological achievements tend to push the world economy to the recovery and prosperity. 1857 years of the world economic crisis triggered the electrical revolution in marked the second technical revolution; 1929 years of the world economic crisis triggered the post-war to electronics, aerospace and nuclear technology for the third time the sign of the breakthrough technology revolution; 20 century 40, 50 s computer, synthetic material the rise of new technology, making us in the post-war quickly to economic prosperity; A recent Internet information technology revolution, also effectively help the United States from the 1987 economic crisis the recovery. The famous “information superhighway” plan with a Clinton period for 8 years of economic growth, its influence has continued ever since.
Science and technology innovation has become a financial crisis to overcome the other edge of the international community in this respect are already have an amazing consensus. President Obama about economic policy in the published an important speech has said, the United States has walked out of the financial crisis of confidence, is one of the reasons the United States still has the world’s most advanced science and technology innovation and invention. Chinese premier wen jiabao in 2008 the national science and technology awarding meeting points out: “history shows that every big crisis often followed by a new science and technology revolution; each time the recovery of the economy, is inseparable from the technology innovation. Through the major science and technology breakthrough, the creation of new social needs, bringing in a new round of economic prosperity.” “Knowledge and science and technology is the important factor of sustainable development, and is the basic forces of economic difficulties to overcome.” (3) to China’s online game publishing industry as an example, the general administration of press and publications to strengthen China’s online game of independent research and development capacity and implementation “the Chinese national network game publishing project”, pushed by 2008 China online game development company already amounted to 131, engaged in the research and development of professional personnel of $24768, a 17.8% increase over 2007; Independent research and development of the network games of more than half 286, a 14.4% increase over 2007, some large network game development companies, such as the perfect time and space, tencent, jinshan, nets dragon in 2008 with an average annual and launched at least a more network game works. In 2008 China independent research and development of the network games actual sales income of 11.01 billion yuan RMB, a 60% increase over 2007, of China’s online game publishing market 59.9% of total revenue, original network game has been strong for four consecutive years of the Chinese market occupy the leading position. The top ten in the most popular online game, independent research and development of the network games occupy the six seats, realize the market value and the number of users of the double breakthrough. (4) the scientific and technological innovation and its transformation of achievements, agree with cultural production and consumption of strong demand of science and technology field, will greatly promote the rapid development of the cultural industry. As long as we seize the opportunity, accelerate the research and development of new technology application, can with the power of science and technology innovation support and lead our cultural industry to a new level.
(3) the financial crisis promote the upgrading of the industrial structure highlights culture industry advantage.
In the knowledge-based economy era, innovation is the core and nature of the cultural industry is the dominant industry, and at the same time, because of its own to the material and energy of the low consumption are considered the most conducive to the implementation of the sustainable development of industry. Released in 2006, the national economic and social development of the 11 five year plan for clearly put, must accelerate the transformation of economic growth mode, in order to optimize the industrial structure in promoting development, and the adjustment of economic structure as the main line, prompted by economic growth mainly rely on industrial drive and quantity expansion drive to the three industries of synergy drive and structure optimization drive change. Comrade li changchun articles also said: “the business culture industry as the cultural and economic blend mutually, the embodiment of high scientific and technological content, low consumption of resources, less contamination of environment, development potential, is the new economic growth point, is also the adjustment of economic structure and the focal point of cultural market prosperity, and promote economic and social development of increasingly prominent role.” (5) the current international financial crisis a strong impact to our economy, but also to promote China’s economic structure adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure bring an opportunity, in this process the high energy consumption, labor-intensive industry will be eliminated or forced to upgrade, the industrial structure of our country to the low energy consumption, of knowledge intensive industry transformation, the cultural industry can seize the opportunity to accelerate development. Financial crisis thrusting our cultural industry upgrade, the cultural industry of long chain can also spread reverse stimulate downturn situation, and promoting economic development. So, on the one hand, can stimulate the vitality of economic development, on the other hand can create more employment opportunities. This for alleviating China resources, environment and social employment pressure has very important practical significance.
(4) the financial crisis under international cultural market competition situation happen new changes.
By international financial crisis, the developed countries of the cultural industry is under different degrees of shock. Foreign culture enterprise entering into China, the pace of cultural market significantly slow down, competitive situation temporarily slowed, international cultural industry business development stage appear weak, for our cultural industry to speed up the “going out” provides certain market space and favorable conditions. Culture “going out”, mainly through the three approaches: copyright “going out”, finished product “go out” and entity “go out”. Among them the copyright output is simple, but relatively passive; Products output effective fast, but limited by languages; Founded in overseas entity, the implementation of the localization strategy, then it would not only be close to the actual international society and the audience, and can use, can effectively into international mainstream market. At present, the international market with Chinese cultural element to the interest of the products are increasingly strong, it is our culture enterprise through the acquisition, merger, cooperation in a variety of forms such as foreign direct to establish their own manufacturing base, make oneself of the cultural products smoothly to enter the international market created very advantageous condition, provides a rare opportunity. 6 as long as we seize this opportunity to advantage, build a number of policy support strong international operation ability of culture medium enterprise, constructing the system of high efficiency as soon as possible international communication system, our cultural industry aircraft carrier will brave the wind and waves, headed for blue ocean.
Second, the crisis stage after our cultural industry development countermeasures.
(a) to push reform of the cultural system.
The development of cultural industry, must solve institutional problems. One is in accordance with the separation of government affairs separate principle, and to actively transform government culture management function, build strong macroeconomic control. To realize the government from “run”
Culture to “tube” cultural shift from direct to indirect management management changes. Through the “service, consulting, supervise, coordinate” and so on the cultural market management way into orbit of standardization and legalization. 2 it is actively promote cultural institutions of the business enterprise reform. To a few state-owned enterprise culture of modern enterprise system transformation, and make them a clear property rights, well-defined right, independent operation and their own profits and losses of the enterprise culture, give them in driving the country culture industry development process of the responsibility of the mainstay. Also, according to the culture industry can business scope, the private enterprise to enter the market allows culture of culture project and encourage the cultural industry in the industrial policy, for the private enterprise to enter the culture to provide specific market operation policy. Eventually form to public culture enterprise as the main body, the state-owned culture enterprise as the guidance and non-public culture enterprise coexist culture enterprise multiple development pattern.
(2) to establish and perfect the legal system of the cultural industry.
Our cultural industry in the current rapid development, the traditional industry will continue to develop, the new industry constantly emerging, new, new questions also will rise, and the cultural industry must conform to the trend of development, need regulations issued as soon as possible, and to the development of cultural industry to regulate and promote and effective management. One is to strengthen the legislation. Industry not only to be following the legislation to the development of the industry, and to promote the reform and system is. According to the cultural product can be replicated sex, cultural products to the different groups, the adaptability of the cultural industry policy environment needed, formulate relevant laws and regulations; According to the cultural group various kinds and diverse forms, cultural consumer groups of different cultural products accept ability is different, make culture market access laws and regulations; According to the development of cultural industries introduced capital needs, make the cultural industry of the investment and financing, and tax preferential laws and regulations; According to the culture industry talent and technology needs, make introducing cultural talent and technology of laws and regulations, etc. Two is to strengthen the enforcement of the law. Strengthened copyright consciousness, strengthen the protection of intellectual property, and the ACTS of intellectual property infringement include piracy, forgery, fake, tort crack of sanctions, ensure socialist culture industry in the legal orbit, and promoting the development of continuous, high efficiency, stable.
(3) culture energetically carry out the strategy of industrial cluster.
The cultural industry strong fusion decided their development process to all kinds of resources integration, and the cultural industry cluster produce the scale economy and synergy effect also become the driving force of development, which is already by foreign proved by practice. American Disney, Hollywood and time warner group is the culture of industrial cluster successful model. China’s culture industry business unit is numerous, but basically at “independent status” resources scattered, intensive level is low, hard to produce scale effect, difficult to form the whole brand advantage.
Therefore, we must vigorously promote resource integration and enterprise restructuring, improve industry concentration. Want to rely on competitive enterprises (including culture and the cultural enterprise), through the cross-regional, cross-trade and cross ownership merging, combining, restructuring and so on many kinds of ways, promote the quality resources to key enterprise concentration, make scale, intensive and complex culture industry group, cultivate a group of strength, and has a strong competitive power and influence of the large mainstay enterprise culture, the cultural products creation, production, processing and sales into an organic whole repeatedly, formation of the organic combination of industry chain, promote cultural industry cluster development, form scale, make the culture industry become a real the pillar of the national economy and participate in the international competition the main strength.
(4) fully explored the Chinese traditional culture resources.
“Culture is the wealth”. The culture as resources, and form a new economic form, is the important trend of today’s society. The Chinese civilization has a long history, and has five thousand years of history of civilization and culture type is extremely rich, accumulated the difficult to appraisal culture resources.
But, at present our rich cultural resources have not been do very good development and utilization. Instead, always be foreign company beat development. For example, the hua mu LAN “is the Chinese household story, but the United States into a Disney packing box office animation large; The romance of The Three Kingdoms, the marsh, “monkey” are Japan and South Korea adapted into animation, after the game, selling to China earn piles. These examples remind us, in the current economic and cultural globalization background, the development and utilization of the culture is no regional, without borders, who cultural consciousness ahead, who art gimmick is advanced, who will occupy culture resources development the commanding heights. If not quickly improve cultural resources development and integration ability, can only watch the high-quality goods of history have been fashioned into other people’s products. 7 how to reduce the similar passive and embarrassed, how to make the Chinese culture in our own hands really carry forward, is our future will strive to resolve problems.
(5) strengthening the cultural industry talents cultivation.
The development of cultural industry, talent is the key. China’s culture industry is the lack of strong competitiveness, and one of the reasons is the lack of a batch of understand market, understand business, understand management, and understand technology, understand art, have good taste of specialized personnel. 8) we should formulate the flow of talent cultivation and the policy, broke industry and national, provincial and municipal boundaries of regional, cultural production completely according to law, implement talent free, reasonable flow, exchanges and cooperation. Must change the traditional cultural talent area, unit all of the system, and realize the socialization of the management of human resources and personnel supply and demand of the market economy. To pay attention to cultivating culture industry management talent, especially can adapt to the digital technology environment of the culture in industry needs capital talents, digital art software development personnel and media industry operation management talent. To develop cultural creation and production of high-end talent and complex talents, but also key cultivation culture product marketing talents.
To actively various kinds of large creative design exhibition, make designers and exchange of the collision of the platform, stimulate the creative talent to create original cultural products of passion and power. To promote the overall art education primary and middle schools, training future culture art creators and consumers. To establish a cultural cultivation of talents, to introduce, selection and stimulation mechanism, do priciples, enable the human resources to get the optimal, promote our country’s culture industry fast development.
Historical experience shows that, in a financial crisis or economic depression, the cultural industry will usually contrarian development, rapid rise. As long as the situation, make timely forward-looking research and planning, take effective strategies, China’s culture industry will change the crisis into an opportunity for, contrarian, a difference, for the people’s livelihood, the growth, the stability and promote economic and social sustainable development to make positive contribution to the overall.