Since the 16 th CPC national congress, local cultural development to win, to the situation, the cultural industry rapid rise, the development of cultural industry overall situation is good, but there is also some problems that can not be neglected in: reform of the cultural system is still not in the position, the cultural industry policy incomplete, the cultural industry laws and regulations are not perfect, the cultural industry overall strength etc. Therefore, we must have a scientific culture industry development, adhere to the system reform and the progress of science and technology as a driving force, promote cultural innovation ability; To promote the development of Chinese national culture and absorb the world excellent culture, and the combination of cultural industry development way in Chinese special way.
The cultural industry was originated from western countries, is the product of modern industrial civilization, is internationally recognized the 21 st century, most development future with the most potential for growth “sunrise industry”.
China’s culture industry is in reform, opening up and the construction of socialist market economic system in the process of the history of the rise and development. Since the 16 th CPC national congress, local cultural development to win, to the situation, the cultural industry rapid rise. But inescapable is our cultural industry is in the beginning, exploration, cultivating primary stage of development. The party congress report “: in the present era, culture has become a more and more important source of national cohesion and creativity, more and more become the important factor of competition in overall national.” Therefore, only a clear understanding of the present situation of our cultural industry, find the existing problems, to find out countermeasures to achieve rapid development.
A, the present situation of the development of cultural industry in our country.
1. The development of cultural industry in our country the whole situation is good, has become a key growth point of national economy development.
Since the reform and opening up, thanks to the good development of domestic and international conditions, our cultural industry to obtain development, increasingly shows growth in the strong momentum of development, has become a key growth point of national economy development to provide employment opportunities of the functions are becoming more and more outstanding.
According to the national bureau of statistics, since 2004, the added value of our cultural industry growth rate are higher than the GDP growth rate in the same period, the average years was RMB 100 billion or so, increased 15% ~ 20%, the average annual GDP increased 0.15%. In 2007, cultural industry professionals has 11.32 million, accounts for all employees for 1.48%, ZhanChengZhen employees for 4.0%. From 2004 to 2007, all the country of the cultural industry of provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in general growth, which Beijing at an annual average rate of 17.4%, the Shanghai at an annual average rate of 15%, at an annual average rate of 24% in jiangsu province, hunan province at an annual average rate of 20% or so, Shanxi Province at an annual average rate of 24.5%, anhui province at an annual average rate of 20% or more, the local culture industry growth rate are higher than the GOP growth speed, presents the overall growth of the good situation, basically achieved the cultural industry in the great-leap-forward development. The overall growth has eloquently proved our cultural industry has been become area development important economic growth.
2. The party and government’s cultural management way gradually from the micro management to macro-control, the cultural industry macro-control mechanism basic formation.
In recent years, according to the construction of socialist culture and the inherent law of the objective requirement of the market economic system, in the cultural system reform and the development of cultural industry, pushed by the party and the government in practice continuously explore promote cultural industry developing fast effective mechanism and the way to in the transformation of government functions, enhance the service function and strengthening macro guidance fluctuation kongfu. The party and the government to relax the cultural industry gradually in the field of micro direct, administrative management, and gradually decentralization to enterprise, gradually decentralization to the market, through the market to construction culture, and to promote culture, the guidance by the government functions and the public service function to further strengthen, the government began to cultural industry of the construction of the macroeconomic regulation and control mechanism, to open government, service-oriented government changes.
3. Culture to speed up the adjustment of industrial structure, high and new technology to promote the formation of new culture industry and traditional culture industry of upgrades.
From the world scale, modern culture industry development a remarkable characteristic of high and new technology is increasingly fusion, especially connected with the information industry, has become a worldwide trend. In recent years, information technology industry and traditional culture industry increasingly fusion, the cultural industry in our country, caused dramatic industry association effect: the information into the media field, a “media hot”, the press, publishing, radio, film and television and the traditional mass media department quickly “net”, the emergence of a cultural industry information industry and the “big confluence”
Spectacles, launched a and a consumer market, such as network game, mobile phone content industry and so on, promoted the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure and restructuring. From the relative statistic data can see to the Internet information network culture service mainly to tourism, entertainment, leisure and entertainment services and to culture advertising, exhibition, cultural business agency primarily emerging the development of cultural industry of the potential is tremendous, cultural industry is becoming an important engine of incremental ascension.
Second, our cultural industry development are the main problem.
After years of development, the cultural industry in our country has made good progress, but also should see our culture industry development level and the gap between the advanced level in the world, and our cultural industry in the development of restricting factors.
1. The reform of the cultural system is still not in position.
Since 1978, our country reform of the cultural system liberated thought, the innovation idea, reform the mechanism, catching the opportunity, become the cultural industry developing fast power. But at the same time also should see, as to further promote reform, reform of the cultural system become more complex, more difficult, traditional system is still not fully exit the stage of history.
At present, the our country present cultural management system basically is still in the department division, the state of its own free will. Each management department there are generally between regions, departments, industry and regional segmentation, management diversification, make the culture enterprise in practice to feel comfortable from, also easy to produce who is no business of the grey zone, make a few department did between, difficult to form a cohesive force. At the same time, our country culture behind the investment and financing system, not break through the main body of investment single policy shackles, diversity, marketization, social culture multiplying financing channels serious not free, lead to foreign investment and private capital to enter, lack of necessary legal protection.
2. The cultural industry policy is not complete.
Undeniable, China implemented the cultural industry strategy, formulated the many cultural industry policy, encourage and support the development of cultural industry. Especially in October 2008, issued by the general office of the state council “about print and distribute culture system reform in business culture institutions purely for the enterprise and support the development of enterprise culture two provisions announcement” (no. 114 document), marks the reform of the cultural system supporting policy is increasingly perfect. However, our cultural industry policy prospective is insufficient, in culture industry such a development rapidly changing new industry, in the practice of the new problems and new situation will surely a lot, this requires industrial policy must have a prospective, otherwise will can not adapt to the change of the practice, causing the problems of industrial development, and even may be the resistance of the industry development. In addition, to regulate the market operation of the cultural industry policy also incomplete. Our cultural industry policy formulation is still in the market to culture management phase, and policies of the principle of cultural market is only the reorganization of the orderly, but for the development of cultural industry, in the administrative examination and approval, market access, investment and financing, market management, tax and other aspects rare enough to attract foreign capital and resource a series of preferential measures. That is to say, of China’s culture industry development in the advantages of cultural industry policy is not yet reflected.
3. The cultural industry is not perfect legal laws and regulations, to intellectual property rights to the attention of the national culture and the protection of resources is not enough.
Since the reform and open policy, our country legal system construction began on the cultural institutionalized, standardization of the track. At present, our country in culture protection field formulated the “cultural relic protection law and the copyright law, administrative management in culture, the state council promulgated the regulations on the administration of commercial performances of the entertainment management regulations of the administration of radio and television regulations” movie management regulations of the administration of publishing regulations regulation on the administration of audio-video products and so on. China’s culture industry regulations by the government is mainly different administrative departments in the government and in the name of the release, intersected trace still obvious, industry and sector to protect color still strong. Especially after China’s entry into the WTO, although and according to WTO principles formulated a series of new management way, but our country’s existing laws and regulations and the WTO of China’s culture industry policy to the requirements of the contradiction between still exist, more highlights our country to intellectual property rights and national culture resources protection of the legal system is not perfect.
4. Culture industry scale is still small, and the overall strength is poor, weak competitiveness.
From the developed countries culture industry development to the current situation, a national culture industry competitive power mainly for several cultural enterprise group’s competitiveness, big cultural enterprise group with abundant capital, technology and personnel strength to participate in the international and domestic market competition ability. Because China’s culture industry late start, the cultural enterprise although quantity many, but the lack of market competitiveness: from the number on look, at present China culture enterprise although number, but still in industry, the regional resources and market segmentation “go” condition, modern large scale culture enterprise were few; Look from the scale, while China’s current cultural enterprise is more, but the scale slant generally small, the degree of industrial intensification low, scale economy influence little effect, lack of market competitiveness; From the development quality on look, today, the global information technology and the Internet has spread, high-tech and cultural products with more closely. Our cultural industry and the degree of marketization enough, specialized level is not high, the market operation ability is bad, self development ability is weak, the efficiency is low.
Three, the acceleration of China’s culture industry development countermeasures and Suggestions.
Since the establishment of our cultural industry from scratch, has achieved great development. The most serious international financial crisis interrupted in China’s economy in the process of the development path inertia, culture industry in the promote national economic growth and transformation of the important role of highlights again. Because economic depression, people would inhibit the material consumption, consumption and spirit will be expanded, and this often is the cultural industry development and prosperity to the opportunity of the period. We should seize the opportunity, to speed up the development of cultural industry in our country.
1. The problem of knowledge in development, build up the scientific culture industry development, adhere to the social effects in the first place, to realize social benefit and economic benefit of unity.
The scientific concept of development is the guiding our country modernization new thinking principle, development of the cultural industry need to also be guided by the scientific development concept. The cultural industry to do scientific development is to insist that the social effects in the first place, and constantly satisfy the people’s growing cultural need to realize the social benefit and economic benefit of unity. The cultural industry has both industry and conscious attribute the particularity of the form, which can produce economic benefits, also has the function of spirit. The employees of the cultural industry in the pursuit of economic benefits and reasonable, should notice to promote its cultural products and services of social function. The development of cultural industry is the economic benefit and social benefit effective unity, ensure social benefits, under the premise of the pursuit of economic; In the culture of the high quality products and services to realize the economic interests. To keep social benefit and economic benefit of unity, in the development of the cultural industry, is to stick to the development requirements of the advanced culture, to put development point of application in serves the people, guarantee the people’s cultural rights and interests, and satisfy the people’s spiritual and cultural needs and promoting the comprehensive development, prosperity, urban and rural cultural market, has introduced not only conforms to the cultural development law, but also reflect the spirit of the age of cultural products, and satisfy the people’s growing, rich and colorful cultural needs.
The cultural industry to do scientific development is to adhere to the comprehensive and coordinated development area all over the world, enhance the overall competitiveness of our cultural industry. At present, China’s culture industry on the whole east strong and weak in the west. The east has obvious advantages of the industry, such as funds, technology and talents, the western development of the cultural industry despite facing many advantages and difficulties, but also have the special features and advantages, for example, some places more completely retained the reflect the remains of ancient civilization; Some towns is containing rich cultural connotation; Some village village has the rich variety of folk art, and so on. This kind of unique cultural resources is some modern degree very high developed areas could comprehend. Thus we should take edom west, on the one hand, can effectively with China’s has been the implementation of the western development strategy; On the other hand, can be achieved with the east is complementary, facilitate the coordinated development of the eastern culture industry, overall improve the competitiveness of our cultural industry.
2. In the development strategy, adhere to the system reform and the progress of science and technology as the power, strengthening cultural industry development vitality, promote cultural innovation ability.
Our cultural products now occupies the 19% market share, it shows that we have already have quite mature of cultural products processing ability, but in the cultural creativity, we and the cultural industry is still far apart powers, innovation consciousness, there is a need to further improve the creation ability. In animation industry, for example, our country cartoon of the small scale of the enterprise, the low degree of intensive, and original ability is weak, industry quality is not high, with independent intellectual property rights of the products with little in the world, is still in the downstream of the industrial chain, more than 85% of the enterprise is still in the red state. Innovation is the soul of the nation, is the life of the culture, is the development of cultural resources vitality is, and also is the promotion of culture industry fast development of important ways. Cultural products of the production is intellectual creation activities, cultural products only constant innovation, can satisfy the people’s growing material and cultural needs, can have common, eternal value.
To improve the innovation ability of the cultural industry, must be on the system reform and the progress of science and technology as a driving force, stimulate the cultural creativity of the whole society. We should pay full attention to high and new technology in the application of the cultural industry, strengthen technological introduction and independent development, with high and new technology means transforming traditional culture, the development of new culture industry. Strengthen the cultural industry and cultural resources digitization, network construction, to use modern market economy information and marketing methods, promote cultural product circulation. We should not only make the roadmap, and to make the schedule, further integration of resources and revitalize the stock, to make innovation idea and the market demand combined, promote cultural industrial upgrading.
3. In developing strategies on, insist to promote the development of Chinese national culture and absorb the world excellent culture, and the combination of cultural industry development way in Chinese special way.
China is a country with an ancient civilization, is one who has a rich cultural heritage of the country. A long history, the broad and profound Chinese traditional culture is the people of all ethnic groups of China to the human culture important contribution. Rich cultural heritage is our country culture to the world of the base. Facing the world culture industry in the rapid development and join the wto foreign strong culture of entering the heavily, only based on China’s traditional cultural superiority, fully develop precious resources, keep pace with The Times, innovation, create with Chinese style and Chinese style of cultural products, can obtain the true market competitiveness.
Thousands of Chinese culture renditions of charming, broad and profound, have magical Oriental characteristics, we should not only with the enthusiasm of the attitude and the world cultural exchange, more to make the eastern civilization toward the world and strive in the world cultural market for our position. Therefore, we want to pursue the universality of human culture consumption, let China’s cultural products open an international market and into the world, for human services. In particular, we want to further perfect the relevant policies and regulations; Support domestic culture enterprise foreign investment; Increase our multinational company culture, and the construction of Perfect our foreign trade policy and encourage various cultural power in accordance with international practice in international cultural agency and the intermediary service, use our large group of overseas Chinese promoting Chinese language international spread; To encourage cultural enterprise to develop export-oriented industries, encourage domestic outstanding cultural enterprise and international famous cultural enterprise cooperation and active with the world of multinational media cooperation, and use them to the advanced technology and the global network market to develop international market and realize the success of the Chinese culture to a long voyage.
4. In practice, one is to adhere to the reform of the cultural system and go scale, intensive development way, and enlarge industrial scale and enhance the cultural industry overall strength and competitiveness; 2 it is to further improve policies, laws and regulations, the establishment of a complete policy and legal system to ensure the smooth development of the cultural industry.
As stated above, the our country present cultural system and our social and economic development, there are still many does not adapt place, these will become our next culture industry in the reform of the system of the difficulties and the bottleneck problem. Therefore, must to deepen the reform of the cultural system, stimulate the cultural creativity of the whole society. In the future, our country culture system reform should focus on the following the following job: first, actively adjust the structure, cultivate the market main body, promote state-owned business culture turn unit enterprise restructuring, constructing the industrial development foundation. Second, reform the system of investment, to broaden the financing channels. To reduce barriers to entry, positively absorbs social capital and foreign investment policies allow the culture industry, participate in state-owned culture enterprise shareholding system reform, and gradually form the public ownership as the main body, the multiple ownerships developing the cultural industry of new pattern. Third, through the restructuring, merger, bankruptcy and other forms, the integration of industry resources and revitalize the stock, improve industry scale, intensive degree, strive for the scale benefits. Therefore, July 22, 2009, the standing committee of state council by the culture industry development plan outline for the “point out:
“Pushing cross-regional, cross-trade joint or restructuring, foster backbone enterprise culture, overall planning, speed up the construction of a batch of industry demonstration base development, with regional and national characteristics of culture industry group.”
Constantly perfect the legal system of the cultural industry is the fundamental guarantee for the healthy development. Culture industry as the market economy is an important part, it must be through the healthy development of the administration according to law, and shall operate, fair competition, can be achieved. Consumers, producers the concept of legal system indifference, regulators to to govern the administration according to law, the lack of understanding of our country have restricted the development of cultural industry. We will continue to improve the positive culture industry legal system, building both to the WTO principles to adapt and to China’s national conditions and cultural development needs of the cultural industry of the legal system. One is to strengthen the legislation. In order to give the development of cultural industry to provide a orderly and healthy macro environment, according to the development of cultural industry will request, strengthen the legislation, and through the laws to regulate the cultural market, and reshape cultural market order. 2 it is strictly enforce the law. Adhere to strict law enforcement, administration according to law, strengthen the copyright consciousness, strengthen the protection of intellectual property, to piracy, forgery, such as fake ACTS of intellectual property infringement using its own sanctions. According to “to develop advanced culture and support healthy and useful culture, work hard to reforming backward culture, resolutely resist decadent cultures” the request, through to manage, and maintain the health of cultural market operation, make the culture enterprise and culture of the market business activities are in line with the goal of the social and public interests.